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The relationship between extent of pesticide use and signs and symptoms of illnesses due to exposure was assessed in a cross-sectional survey of 631 farmers (537 men and 94 women) in South India. Responses to questionnaires showed that 433 farmers (68.6%) sprayed pesticides themselves and were thus directly exposed. More than 75% used moderately or highly(More)
The performance of a compost biofilter inoculated with mixed microbial consortium was optimized for treating a gas-phase mixture of benzene and toluene. The biofilter was acclimated to these VOCs for a period of ∼18d. The effects of concentration and flow rate on the removal efficiency (RE) and elimination capacity (EC) were investigated by varying the(More)
Response-surface methodology was applied to determine the effect of the fermentation process conditions, namely pH, temperature, rates of agitation and aeration, on surfactin production. The effects of the mutual interactions between these parameters were extensively studied to optimize the process conditions for the maximum production of surfactin. With a(More)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a new class of air pollutants posing threat to the environment. Newer technologies are being developed for their control among which biofiltration seem to be most attractive. Biofiltration of methanol vapor from air stream was evaluated in this study. Experimental investigations were conducted on a laboratory scale(More)
A microbial consortium acclimatized with benzene, toluene or xylene (BTX) was employed to study the degradation pattern of these compounds individually under aerobic conditions. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the adaptability of the enriched cultures under substrate versatility conditions. The bio-kinetic parameters obtained(More)
Traditional lactic acid fermentation suffers from low productivity and low product purity. Cell-recycle fermentation has become one of the methods to obtain high cell density, which results in higher productivity. Lactic acid fermentation was investigated in a cell-recycle membrane bioreactor at higher substrate concentrations of 100 and 120 g/dm3. A(More)
Biosorption of three divalent metals, viz., lead, copper, and cadmium in ternary aqueous mixtures was studied using Phanerochaete chrysosporium in batch shake flasks. The mixtures were prepared containing the metals at their either varying optimum or equal initial concentration combinations in aqueous solution of pH optimum to each of the metals. Following(More)
Biosorption using microbial cells as adsorbents is being seen as a cost-effective method for the removal of heavy metals from wastewaters. Biosorption studies with Phanerochaete chrysosporium were performed for copper (II), lead (II), and cadmium (II) to evaluate the effectiveness and to optimize the operational parameters using response surface(More)
The structures of biofilms deposited on the membrane surface under different dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions were characterized to identify its relation to membrane filterability in membrane bioreactors (MBR). The rate of membrane fouling for the low DO (LDO) reactor was 7.5 times faster than that for the high DO (HDO) reactor. Even though the biofilm(More)
Experimental studies were carried out with a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter to treat a gaseous stream contaminated with benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) operated in a continuous mode. The biotrickling filter initially acclimatised with toluene was used to treat BTX compound individually at loading rates ranging from 7.2 g/m 3 hr to 62.2 g/m 3 hr,(More)