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BACKGROUND It is not known how a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet causes weight loss or how it affects blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE To determine effects of a strict low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body water, energy intake and expenditure, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid levels in(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of biological disorders with associated metabolic derangement. This study aimed to identify a pattern of metabolic perturbance in ASD using metabolomics in urinary specimens from 48 children with ASD and 53 age matched controls. Using a combination of liquid- and gas-chromatography-based mass spectrometry, we(More)
The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to measure human energy expenditure (EE) during spaceflight on a shuttle mission by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; 2) to determine whether the astronauts were in negative energy balance during spaceflight; 3) to use the comparison of change in body fat as measured by the intake DLW EE, 18O(More)
Long-term spaceflight induces hypokinesia and hypodynamia, which, along microgravity per se, result in a number of significant physiological alterations, such as muscle atrophy, force reduction, insulin resistance, substrate use shift from fats to carbohydrates, and bone loss. Each of these adaptations could turn to serious health deterioration during the(More)
The energy expenditures (EE) of 23 adult male Marines were measured during a strenuous 11-day cold-weather field exercise at 2,200- to 2,550-m elevation by both doubly labeled water (2H2 18O, DLW) and intake balance methods. The DLW EE calculations were corrected for changes in baseline isotopic abundances in a control group that did not receive 2H2 18O.(More)
Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein. To investigate this problem, dietary intake, nitrogen balance, the whole body protein, and fibrinogen protein synthesis rates were measured on the crews of two Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) shuttle missions before, during, and after spaceflight. The first mission, SLS-1, lasted 9.5 days, and the(More)
In chronic renal failure (CRF), plasma concentrations of the products of protein metabolism are increased. Current dietary management is to prescribe a decrease in protein intake. The use of dietary fiber to increase fecal excretion of retained metabolites in CRF may be a beneficial adjunct to a low-protein diet (LPD). Colonic bacteria ferment dietary(More)
The objectives of this study were to assess oxidant damage during and after spaceflight and to compare the results against bed rest with 6 degrees head-down tilt. We measured the urinary excretion of the F(2) isoprostane, 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OH DG) before, during, and after long-duration spaceflight(More)
Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein. Bed rest studies suggest that the reduction in the whole body protein synthesis (PS) rate should be approximately 15%. The objectives of this experiment were to test two hypotheses on astronauts and cosmonauts during long-duration (>3 mo) flights on MIR: that 1) the whole body PS rate will be(More)
  • T Stein
  • Nutrition research reviews
  • 2001
Space flight is a new experience for man. Tension on the weight-bearing components of the musculo-skeletal system is greatly reduced, as is the work required for movement. The body responds by a reductive remodelling of the musculo-skeletal system. Protein is lost from muscles with anti-gravity functions. The rate of Ca loss from the weight-bearing bones is(More)