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Genome-wide association studies have reported an association between the A-allele of rs1006737 within CACNA1C and affective disorders and schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between rs1006737 and established and potential endophenotypes for these disorders in a population-based cohort of 3793 subjects, using an(More)
Confounding can be a major source of bias in nonexperimental research. The authors recently introduced propensity score calibration (PSC), which combines propensity scores and regression calibration to address confounding by variables unobserved in the main study by using variables observed in a validation study. Here, the authors assess the performance of(More)
OBJECTIVE To add to the evidence on comparative long-term effects of insulin analog glargine versus human NPH insulin on the risk for cancer. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We identified cohorts of initiators of glargine and human NPH without an insulin prescription during the prior 19 months among patients covered by the Inovalon Medical Outcomes Research(More)
Early diagnosis is a tenet in oncology and should enable early treatment with the expectation of improved outcome. Extent and determinants of patient delay of diagnosis in breast cancer patients and its impact on stage of disease were examined in a population based study among female breast cancer patients in Germany. Two hundred and eighty-seven women,(More)
BACKGROUND Nonexperimental studies of drug effects in large automated databases can provide timely assessment of real-life drug use, but are prone to confounding by variables that are not contained in these databases and thus cannot be controlled. OBJECTIVES To describe how information on additional confounders from validation studies can help address the(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of restricting study populations is to make patients more homogeneous regarding potential confounding factors and treatment effects and thereby achieve less biased effect estimates. OBJECTIVES This article describes increasing levels of restrictions for use in pharmacoepidemiology and examines to what extent they change rate ratio(More)
High reliability and validity of clinical rating schemes is crucial for their use as outcome measurements of treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis. In this paper, we review the empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of commonly used clinical scores. Clinical scores and related reliability and validity studies were identified by systematic(More)
Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated(More)
BACKGROUND The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) 2010 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of cryptococcosis outlined three key populations at risk of disease: (1) HIV-infected, (2) transplant recipient, and (3) HIV-negative/non-transplant. However, direct comparisons of management, severity and outcomes of these groups have not been(More)
A number of covariate-balancing methods, based on the propensity score, are widely used to estimate treatment effects in observational studies. If the treatment effect varies with the propensity score, however, different methods can give very different answers. The authors illustrate this effect by using data from a United Kingdom-based registry of subjects(More)