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K-Cl cotransporters (KCC) play fundamental roles in ionic and osmotic homeostasis. To date, four mammalian KCC genes have been identified. KCC2 is expressed exclusively in neurons. Injection of Xenopus oocytes with KCC2 cRNA induced a 20-fold increase in Cl(-)-dependent, furosemide-sensitive K(+) uptake. Oocyte swelling increased KCC2 activity 2-3 fold. A(More)
Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI). This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized(More)
1,2. Since then, technical advances have allowed the transition from mouse, via chimeric and humanized, to fully human mAbs 3,4 , with a reduction in potentially immu-nogenic mouse components (FIG. 1a). This has led to mAbs having marked successes in the clinic 5,6 (TABLE 1). Indeed, the US Food and Drug Administration has now approved more than 20 mAbs,(More)
A strong foundation of basic and applied research documents that the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus and related species are unique laboratory and field models for understanding how individuals and populations interact with their environment. In this paper we summarize an extensive body of work examining the adaptive responses of Fundulus species to(More)
During peak smoltification, the interactive effects of cortisol and ambient seawater challenge were compared in two strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts: a domesticated strain, AquaGen and a native River Imsa strain. Tissue and blood samples were taken from untreated fish on 20 May. Fish were then transferred to experimental tanks, allowed to(More)
Protein aggregates have been discussed as a potential risk factor related to immunogenicity. Here we developed a novel human IgG transgenic (tg) mouse system expressing a mini-repertoire of human IgG1 antibodies (Abs) for the assessment of immunogenic properties of human mAb preparations. Transgenic mice were generated using germline versions of the human(More)
MicroRNAs are positive and negative regulators of eukaryotic gene expression that modulate transcript abundance by specific binding to sequence motifs located prevalently in the 3' untranslated regions of target messenger RNAs (mRNA). Interferon-alpha-2a (IFNα) induces a large set of protein coding genes mediating antiproliferative and antiviral responses.(More)
There is little guidance regarding the risk of exposure of pregnant women/ women of childbearing potential to genotoxic or teratogenic compounds via vaginal dose delivered through seminal fluid during sexual intercourse. We summarize current thinking and provide clinical trial considerations for a consistent approach to contraception for males exposed to(More)
Single stranded oligonucleotides (SSO) represent a novel therapeutic modality that opens new space to address previously undruggable targets. In spite of their proven efficacy, the development of promising SSO drug candidates has been limited by reported cases of SSO-associated hepatotoxicity. The mechanisms of SSO induced liver toxicity are poorly(More)
On the tenth anniversary of two key International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines relating to cardiac proarrhythmic safety, an initiative aims to consider the implementation of a new paradigm that combines in vitro and in silico technologies to improve risk assessment. The Comprehensive In Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative(More)