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Candida species are the fourth most frequent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, and 25%-50% occur in critical care units. During an 18-month prospective study period, all patients admitted for > or = 72 hours to the surgical (SICUs) or neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) at each of the participant institutions were followed daily. Among 4,276(More)
Computer-assisted DNA fingerprinting with the complex probe Ca3 has been used to analyze the relatedness of isolates collected from individuals with nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) and hospital care workers (HCWs) in the surgical and neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) of four hospitals. The results demonstrate that for the majority of patients(More)
The National Epidemiology of Mycoses Survey (NEMIS) involves six academic centers studying fungal infections in surgical and neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We studied variation in species and strain distribution and anti-fungal susceptibility of 408 isolates of Candida spp. Candida spp. were isolated from blood, other normally sterile site(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the cost-effectiveness of vaccination for hepatitis A. SETTING Hypothetical analysis of students currently enrolled in medical school in the United States. METHOD A Markov-based model was developed using data from the literature, actual hospital costs, and an annual discount rate of 5%. The incidence rate was based on the lowest(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if early interventions for septic shock were associated with reduced mortality. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING University hospital intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. PATIENTS Forty-one consecutive patients prospectively identified with positive blood cultures and septic shock. Although all patients were(More)
Optimal lymphocyte activation generally requires two concurrent signals, one involving the T cell receptor, and another supplied by an accessory cytokine such as interleukin-1. We investigated the conditions under which partial cellular activation occurs in the absence of signal to the T cell receptor. Both murine thymocytes and the T cell clone D10.G4.1(More)
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