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This paper reviews and discusses strategies for the use of thermal imaging for studies of stomatal conductance in the field and compares techniques for image collection and analysis. Measurements were taken under a range of environmental conditions and on sunlit and shaded canopies to illustrate the variability of temperatures and derived stress indices. A(More)
BACKGROUND A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit(More)
Antibiotic-resistant is profoundly important to human and animal health, but the environmental reservoirs of resistance determinants are poorly understood, in particular in wild environments in remote Archipelagos. Moreover, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wild bird populations is rather unknown. In the present study, we used the Azores(More)
Histamine is commonly acknowledged as an inflammatory mediator in peripheral tissues, leaving its role in brain immune responses scarcely studied. Therefore, our aim was to uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms elicited by this molecule and its receptors in microglia-induced inflammation by evaluating cell migration and inflammatory mediator(More)
DNA methylation is a rather sparse event among fungi. Phycomyces blakesleeanus seems to be one of the few exceptions in this context. 5-Methylcytosine represents 2.9% of the total cytosine in spore DNA and is located in approximately the same amount at any of the four CA, CT, CC or CG dinucleotides. A progressive and gradual drop in total 5-methylcytosine(More)
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY To determine the effects of choline on red blood cell membrane properties and NO metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Aliquots of venous blood from eleven healthy subjects were incubated in vitro with choline concentrations 10(-10) to 10(-3) M. The following parameters were determined: erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and membrane(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a vascular disease that disrupts normal blood flow and leads to serious neurological impairment or death. Aberrant functions of AVM-derived brain endothelial cells (AVM-BECs) are a disease hallmark. Our aim was to use microRNA-18a (miR-18a) as a therapeutic agent to improve AVM-BEC(More)
Transient exposure of mycelia from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans to the cytidine analog 5-azacytidine, leading to no more than 0.3 to 0.5% substitution for cytosine by 5-azacytosine in A. nidulans DNA, resulted in the conversion of a high fraction of the cell population (more than 20%) to a mitotically and meiotically stable "fluffy"(More)
A systematic study on the incidence and patterns of cytosine methylation in the fungi has been carried out by restriction and nearest-neighbor analysis of DNAs isolated from undifferentiated cells of several fungal species. With respect to DNA modification, the fungi appear to be a heterogeneous group, with a 5-methylcytosine content ranging from(More)
The filamentous fungus Penicillium italicum produced a certain level of beta-1,3-glucanase during active growth in a glucose-supplemented medium; however, at a low glucose concentration (2 to 10 mM), derepression took place and the specific activity of the enzyme increased significantly. Derepressed cells (incubated in a glucose-limited medium) accumulated(More)