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Early electrophysiological studies in the mammalian hippocampus reported that orthodromic depolarization of pyramidal cells evoked action potential discharge (presumed Na+ dependent) both at the axon hillock and at one or more sites in the dendritic arborization (Cragg and Hamlyn, 1955; Andersen, 1959, 1960; Spencer and Kandel, 1961; Andersen and Lomo,(More)
The influence of extracellular fields on the transmembrane potential (TMP) of CA1 pyramidal neurons was investigated following both ortho- and antidromic stimulation in the in vitro hippocampal slice preparation. A short latency negative deflection on the intracellular potential coincided with the falling phase of the extracellular population spike.(More)
The extracellular responses of neurones in the neostriatum following single pulse stimulation of the substantia nigra were investigated in urethane anaesthetized rats. Low intensity stimulation (less than 10 V) evoked single large amplitude spikes while higher intensities (10-20 V) elicit a high frequency burst of small amplitude spikes or waves. When(More)
In recent years there has been growing interest in discrimi-native parameter training techniques, resulting from notable improvements in speech recognition performance on tasks ranging in size from digit recognition to Switchboard. Typified by Maximum Mutual Information training, these methods assume a fixed statistical modeling structure, and then optimize(More)
1. The site of origin of evoked action-potential discharge in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was investigated using the in vitro rat hippocampal slice preparation. 2. Action-potential discharge in pyramidal cells was evoked by stimulation of efferent pyramidal cell fibers in the alveus (antidromic) or afferent synaptic inputs in stratum oriens (SO) or(More)
1. The relative potencies of a number of analogues of L-glutamate as excitants of thalamic neurones in the rat have been compared. The most powerful compounds were kainate, ibotenate and (+/-)cis-1-amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane. The D- and L-isomers of glutamate and aspartate were also compared. Whereas D-glutamate is approximately one-half as active as(More)
1. The dentate gyrus fails to develop epileptiform activity in many experimental models of epilepsy, including the in vitro low-Ca2+ model. Although manipulating the K+ concentration or osmolality of normal low-Ca2+ perfusion mediums can enhance the propensity of the dentate gyrus to develop seizure activity, the specific mechanisms contributing to this(More)
Eutrophication is a process that can be defined as an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter (OM) to an ecosystem. We provide a general overview of the major features driving estuarine eutrophication and outline some of the consequences of that process. The main chemical constituent of OM is carbon (C), and therefore rates of eutrophication are(More)