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We propose a mathematical model for mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, in which kinetic cooperativity in formation of the apoptosome is a key element ensuring bistability. We examine the role of Bax and Bcl-2 synthesis and degradation rates, as well as the number of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs), on the cell response to apoptotic(More)
Although nitric oxide (NO) induces neuronal cell death under some conditions, it also can prevent apoptosis resulting from growth factor withdrawal. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which NO protects undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells from trophic factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. PC12 cells underwent apoptotic death in association(More)
Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic,(More)
Macrophages can be activated and regulated by high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear protein. Inflammatory functions of HMGB1 are mediated by binding to cell surface receptors, including the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and TLR9. Pyroptosis is a caspase-1-dependent programmed(More)
The hepatic failure associated with severe sepsis is characterized by specific, progressive, and often irreversible defects in hepatocellular metabolism (1). Although the etiologic microbe can often be identified, the direct causes and mechanisms of the hepatocellular dysfunction are poorly understood. We have hypothesized that Kupffer cells (KC), which(More)
Macrophage production of nitric oxide (.N = O) leads to considerable alterations of vital metabolic pathways in various target cells. The present study tested whether .N = O synthesis by Kupffer cells (KCs), the resident macrophages of the liver, interferes with the secretory function of these cells. As in other macrophage-type cells, the combination of(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member and potent apoptosis inducer. In contrast to TNF-alpha or Fas ligand, relatively little is known about the signaling events activated by TRAIL. In particular, the initial caspase(s) required for TRAIL-induced apoptosis remains to be determined Caspase-3-like(More)
Attempts were made to promote or inhibit nitric oxide (. N = O) synthesis in a murine model of hepatic damage (Corynebacterium parvum followed by lipopolysaccharide; LPS) to determine the role of . N = O in the liver injury. Moderate hepatic damage and increases in circulating NO2-/NO3- levels were detectable after C. parvum alone. Administration of LPS to(More)