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The competition between collective quantum phases in materials with strongly correlated electrons depends sensitively on the dimensionality of the electron system, which is difficult to control by standard solid-state chemistry. We have fabricated superlattices of the paramagnetic metal lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and the wide-gap insulator lanthanum(More)
Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: the transition metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The Stoner criterion explains why iron is ferromagnetic but manganese, for example, is not, even though both elements have an unfilled 3d shell and are adjacent in the periodic table: according to this criterion, the product of the density of states and(More)
Diamagnetic oxides can, under certain conditions, become ferromagnetic at room temperature and therefore are promising candidates for future material in spintronic devices. Contrary to early predictions, doping ZnO with uniformly distributed magnetic ions is not essential to obtain ferromagnetic samples. Instead, the nanostructure seems to play the key(More)
The Meissner effect and associated perfect 'bulk' diamagnetism together with zero resistance and gap opening are characteristic features of the superconducting state. In the pseudogap state of cuprates, unusual diamagnetic signals and anomalous proximity effects have been detected, but a Meissner effect has never been observed. Here we probe the local(More)
Materials with interacting magnetic degrees of freedom display a rich variety of magnetic behaviour that can lead to novel collective equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium phenomena. In equilibrium, thermodynamic phases appear with the associated phase transitions providing a characteristic signature of the underlying collective behaviour. Here we create a(More)
The controlled manipulation of the charge carrier concentration in nanometer thin layers is the basis of current semiconductor technology and of fundamental importance for device applications. Here we show that it is possible to induce a persistent inversion from n- to p-type in a 200-nm-thick surface layer of a germanium wafer by illumination with white(More)
The interaction with light weakens the superconducting ground state in classical superconductors. The situation in cuprate superconductors is more complicated: illumination increases the charge carrier density, a photo-induced effect that persists below room temperature. Furthermore, systematic investigations in underdoped YBa2Cu3O(6+x) (YBCO) have shown an(More)
We present a direct spectroscopic observation of a shallow hydrogenlike muonium state in SrTiO(3) which confirms the theoretical prediction that interstitial hydrogen may act as a shallow donor in this material. The formation of this muonium state is temperature dependent and appears below ∼ 70K. From the temperature dependence we estimate an activation(More)
We report on muonium (Mu) emission into vacuum following μ(+) implantation in mesoporous thin SiO(2) films. We obtain a yield of Mu into vacuum of (38±4)% at 250 K and (20±4)% at 100 K for 5 keV μ(+) implantation energy. From the implantation energy dependence of the Mu vacuum yield we determine the Mu diffusion constants in these films: D(Mu)(250(More)