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The teleost Mauthner (M-) cell mediates a sound-evoked escape behavior. A major component of the auditory input is transmitted by large myelinated club endings of the posterior VIIIth nerve. Paradoxically, although nerve stimulations revealed these afferents have mixed electrical and glutamatergic synapses on the M-cell's distal lateral dendrite, paired(More)
Post-hatching development of the circular muscles in the mantle of squid was studied morphometrically to identify structural changes and to quantify hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the muscle fibers. Superficial, mitochondria-rich (SMR) fibers and central, mitochondria-poor (CMP) fibers are present at hatching. Although both fiber types increase in size and,(More)
Social life affects brain function at all levels, including gene expression, neurochemical balance, and neural circuits. We have previously shown that in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni brightly colored, socially dominant (DOM) males face a trade-off between reproductive opportunities and increased predation risk. Compared with camouflaged(More)
Ecological context, sensory inputs, and the internal physiological state are all factors that need to be integrated for an animal to make appropriate behavioral decisions. However, these factors have rarely been studied in the same system. In the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, males alternate between two phenotypes based on position in a social(More)
RNA duplex formation between U1 snRNA and a splice donor (SD) site can protect pre-mRNA from degradation prior to splicing and initiates formation of the spliceosome. This process was monitored, using sub-genomic HIV-1 expression vectors, by expression analysis of the glycoprotein env, whose formation critically depends on functional SD4. We systematically(More)
Management of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) is becoming an increasingly important issue in the context of integrated broadband communication (IBC). In the near future corporate customers may want to subscribe to broadband VPN services offered by globally operating service providers to replace most of their leased line services that are used today to build(More)
In Loligo opalescens, a sudden visual stimulus (flash) elicits a stereotyped, short-latency escape response that is controlled primarily by the giant axon system at 15 C. We used this startle response as an assay to examine the effects of acute temperature changes down to 6 C on behavioral and physiological aspects of escape jetting. In free-swimming squid,(More)
Although extensively used for biophysical studies, the squid giant axon system remains largely unexplored in regard to in vivo function and modulation in any biologically relevant context. Here we show that successful establishment of the recruitment pattern for the giant axon in the escape response elicited by a brief electrical stimulus depends on(More)
Motor function in squid (Loligo) mantle reflects the highly coordinated activity of two motor pathways associated with giant and non-giant motor axons that respectively produce all-or-none and graded contractions in mantle muscle. Whereas both types of axons innervate circular mantle muscle fibers, precise nerve-muscle relationships remain unclear. Are(More)
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