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Insulin receptors are known to be located on nerve cells in mammalian brain. The binding of insulin to dimerized receptors stimulates specialized transporter proteins that mediate the facilitated influx of glucose. However, neurons possess other mechanisms by which they obtain glucose, including transporters that are not insulin-dependent. Further, insulin(More)
F or years seasonal climate forecasts had the potential to improve resource management but instead played only a marginal role in real-world decision making. 1 A widespread perception that the quality of the forecasts was poor presented an especially persistent dilemma for climate forecasters (Changnon 1990). In 1997–98, however, use of the forecasts turned(More)
April–September streamflow volume data from 141 unregulated basins in the western United States were analyzed for trends in year-to-year variability and persistence. Decadal timescale changes in streamflow variability and lag-1-yr autocorrelation (persistence) were observed. The significance of the variability trends was tested using a jackknife procedure(More)
An analysis was conducted of almost 5000 operational seasonal streamflow forecast errors across the western United States. These forecasts are for 29 unregulated rivers with diversity in geography and climate. Deterministic evaluations revealed strong correspondence between observations and forecasts issued 1 April. Forecasts issued earlier in the season(More)
Several quantitative tests of a general hypothesis linking impacts of large asteroids and comets with mass extinctions of life are possible based on astronomical data, impact dynamics, and geological information. The waiting times of large-body impacts on the Earth derived from the flux of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets, and the estimated size of(More)
Runoff in major rivers in China has been decreasing in recent decades, mainly due to climate change and human activity. River basin managers have a critical interest in detecting and diagnosing non-stationaries in runoff time series. Here we use a rainfall runoff model-based approach to identify the human-disturbed periods of the record. The method is(More)
Increased automation and use of computer-aided decision support systems are attractive options for hydrologic forecasting agencies faced with growing product complexity and institutional resourcing pressures. Although the hydrologic literature has been nearly silent on the roles of expertise and automation in forecasting , other disciplines such as(More)