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Synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is thought to contribute to the neural adaptations that mediate behavioral sensitization, a model for core aspects of addiction. Recently, it has been demonstrated that multiple classes of drugs of abuse, as well as acute stress, enhance strength at excitatory synapses on midbrain DA neurons. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne infection caused by a virus (CCHFV) from the Bunyaviridae family. Domestic and wild vertebrates are asymptomatic reservoirs for the virus, putting animal handlers, slaughter-house workers and agricultural labourers at highest risk in endemic areas, with secondary transmission possible through(More)
In many African countries where both Government resources and donor aid for the control of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis are declining, there is an increasing need to identify areas where intervention is most likely to be technically, economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. Activities then can be focused so that the maximum bene ts are(More)
Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no(More)
Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data(More)
Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of(More)
Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study(More)
The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and(More)
The scale of antimicrobial resistance In May this year, the long-awaited final report from the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance was published. 1 The report estimates that the 700 000 annual deaths currently attributable to infections by drug-resistant pathogens will increase, if unchecked, to 10 million by 2050, running up a bill of US$100 trillion in(More)