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OBJECTIVE Previous research has provided conflicting information regarding the pattern of brain activation associated with cognitive performance in depressed people. We aimed to assess brain activation related to cognitive performance during planning and working memory tasks. METHOD fMRI scans were conducted using a modified Tower of London task and a(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is currently undergoing active investigation for use in the treatment of major depression. Recent research has indicated that current methods used to localize the site of stimulation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are significantly inaccurate. However, little information is available on which to(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in brain plasticity, possibly related to abnormal cortical inhibition (CI), have been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a dynamic method for non-invasive study of plastic processes in the human brain. We aimed to determine whether patients with schizophrenia(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia may be characterized by abnormal plastic modulation in cortical neuronal circuits. Activation of premotor cortex using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) produces suppression of cortical excitability in primary motor cortex. We hypothesized that premotor rTMS would cause less suppression of motor cortical(More)
Previous research suggests that patients with schizophrenia demonstrate deficits in a range of parameters of motor cortical and cognitive inhibition. I-wave facilitation and long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) are two paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigms that appear to assess aspects of cortical inhibitory function that have not(More)
We studied the effects of lorazepam and dextromethorphan on the responses to 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the left human motor cortex. Lorazepam, dextromethorphan or placebo was administered to 45 normal controls in a double-blind fashion 2.5 h before the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure. Motor cortical(More)
Integrated Assessment Modelling in the field of air pollution has advanced greatly since the 1985 Helsinki Protocol on the reduction of Sulphur emissions and their transboundary fluxes. With subsequent protocols and increased understanding of the interrelationships between local air quality, transboundary air pollution and climate change, a variety of(More)