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Codon usage data has been compiled for 110 yeast genes. Cluster analysis on relative synonymous codon usage revealed two distinct groups of genes. One group corresponds to highly expressed genes, and has much more extreme synonymous codon preference. The pattern of codon usage observed is consistent with that expected if a need to match abundant tRNAs, and(More)
Demyelination is the hallmark of numerous neurodegenerative conditions, including multiple sclerosis. Oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs), which normally mature into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, are typically present around demyelinated lesions but do not remyelinate affected axons. Here, we find that the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan accumulates in(More)
Between 2% to 5% of all colon cancers arise in the setting of well-defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and certain hamartomatous polyposis conditions. Each is associated with a high risk of colon cancer. In addition to the syndromes, up to one-third of colon cancers exhibit(More)
The precise lineage between neural stem cells and mature astrocytes remains poorly defined. To examine astrocyte development, we have characterized glial precursors from neural tissue derived from early embryonic ages. We show that CD44 identifies an astrocyte-restricted precursor cell (ARP) that is committed to generating astrocytes in vitro and in vivo in(More)
Accurate estimation of recent shared ancestry is important for genetics, evolution, medicine, conservation biology, and forensics. Established methods estimate kinship accurately for first-degree through third-degree relatives. We demonstrate that chromosomal segments shared by two individuals due to identity by descent (IBD) provide much additional(More)
OBJECTIVE The degenerative muscle diseases Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy result from mutations in the DMD gene, which encodes the dystrophin protein. Recent improvements in mutational analysis techniques have resulted in the increasing identification of deep intronic point mutations, which alter splicing such that intronic sequences are(More)
BACKGROUND Guidelines recommend that individuals with a first-degree relative (FDR) diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) or advanced adenoma before age 60 years should undergo colonoscopy starting at age 40 years. The authors quantified the risk of adenomas and CRC in FDRs, second-degree relatives (SDRs), and third-degree relatives (TDRs) of patients(More)
Familial adenomatous polyposis [FAP (OMIM 175100)] is an autosomal dominant colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by hundreds to thousands of colonic polyps and, if untreated by a combination of screening and/or surgical intervention, a ~99% lifetime risk of colorectal cancer. A subset of FAP patients develop an attenuated form of the(More)
The CD44 transmembrane glycoprotein family has been implicated in cell-cell adhesion and cell signaling in response to components of the extracellular matrix but its role in the nervous system is not understood. CD44 proteins are elevated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes following nervous system insults, in inflammatory demyelinating lesions, and in(More)
We have used a simple selection and screening method to isolate function defective mutants of EF-Tu. From 28 mutants tested, 12 different missense substitutions, individually lethal to some essential function of EF-Tu, were identified by sequencing. In addition we found a new non-lethal missense mutation. The frequency of isolation of unique mutations(More)