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Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow(More)
Levels of the C6-polyol mannitol were observed to rise dramatically in the biotrophic interaction of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae and its host plant Vicia faba. Mannitol was found in millimolar concentrations in extracts and apoplastic fluids of infected leaves and also in extracts of spores. We suggest that this polyol might have at least a dual(More)
We have identified and characterized a novel NADP(+)-dependent D-arabitol dehydrogenase and the corresponding gene from the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, a biotrophic plant pathogen on broad bean (Vicia faba). The new enzyme was termed ARD1p (D-arabitol dehydrogenase 1). It recognizes D-arabitol and mannitol as substrates in the forward reaction, and(More)
Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted(More)
Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a devastating pathogen on soybean, endangering soybean production worldwide. Use of Host Induced Gene Silencing (HIGS) and the study of effector proteins could provide novel strategies for pathogen control. For both approaches quantification of transcript abundance by RT-qPCR is essential. Suitable stable reference genes for(More)
The cramp threshold frequency (CTF) is known to be positively correlated with the individual cramp susceptibility. Here we assessed CTF changes after two bouts of electrically induced muscle cramps (EIMCs). The EIMCs (6×5 sec) were unilaterally induced twice (separated by one week) in the gastrocnemius of an intervention group (n=8), while 5 participants(More)
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