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A new Watson-Crick base pair, with a hydrogen bonding pattern different from that in the A.T and G.C base pairs, is incorporated into duplex DNA and RNA by DNA and RNA polymerases and expands the genetic alphabet from 4 to 6 letters. This expansion could lead to RNAs with greater diversity in functional groups and greater catalytic potential.
A detailed study of the chemical behavior of modern catalysts (here, exemplified by dehydrogenases dependent on NAD+) allows us to construct models that distinguish between selected and drifting behaviors in biological macromolecules. These models enable us to manipulate rationally the properties of enzymes, here to design an "acetaldehyde reductase"(More)
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