T. Kokubo

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PURPOSE The risk of developing secondary cancer after radiotherapy, especially after treatment of childhood cancers, remains a matter of concern. The high biological effects of carbon-ion radiation have enabled powerful radiotherapy, yet the approach is commonly restricted to the treatment of adults. Susceptibility of the fetus to particle radiation-induced(More)
Accurate cancer risk assessment of low-dose radiation poses many challenges that are partly due to the inability to distinguish radiation-induced tumors from spontaneous ones. To elucidate characteristic features of radiation-induced tumors, we analyzed 163 medulloblastomas that developed either spontaneously or after X-ray irradiation at doses of 0.05-3 Gy(More)
Embryo quality is a critical parameter in assisted reproductive technologies. Although embryo quality can be evaluated morphologically, embryo morphology does not correlate perfectly with embryo viability. To improve this, it is important to understand which molecular mechanisms are involved in embryo quality control. Autophagy is an evolutionarily(More)
Children are especially sensitive to ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens, and limiting their cancer risk is of great public concern. Calorie restriction (CR) is a potent intervention for suppressing cancer. However, CR is generally not appropriate for children. This study, therefore, examined to see if adult-onset CR influences the lifetime cancer(More)
Renal toxicity is the principal health concern after uranium exposure. Children are particularly vulnerable to uranium exposure; with contact with depleted uranium in war zones or groundwater contamination the most likely exposure scenarios. To investigate renal sensitivity to uranium exposure during development, we examined uranium distribution and(More)
Lysosomes are acidic and highly dynamic organelles that are essential for macromolecule degradation and many other cellular functions. However, little is known about lysosomal function during early embryogenesis. Here, we found that the number of lysosomes increased after fertilization. Lysosomes were abundant during mouse preimplantation development until(More)
Exposure to carcinogens early in life may contribute to cancer development later in life. The amount of radiation exposure children experience during medical procedures has been increasing, so it is important to evaluate the radiation risk of cancer in developing organs. Toward this goal, we assessed the risk of developing renal cell carcinoma using Eker(More)
AIMS A number of ASPM mutations have been detected in primary microcephaly patients. In order to evaluate the function of ASPM in brain development, we generated model animals of human autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-5 (MCPH5). METHODS In the Aspm knock-out mice, the exon 2-3 of the Aspm gene was encompassed by a pair of loxP signals so that(More)
Studies show that the radiation dose received during a micro-CT examination may have adverse effects on living subjects. However, the correlations between the biological effects and the radiation doses have never been thoroughly evaluated in the majority of cases. In this study, we evaluated the biological radiation effects of measured radiation doses in(More)
Genetic, physiological and environmental factors are implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Mutations in the mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene, one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, are a main cause of hereditary colon cancer syndromes such as Lynch syndrome. Long-term chronic inflammation is also a key risk factor, responsible for colitis-associated colorectal(More)