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The widely used immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CSA) blocks nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), preventing its activity. mRNA for several NF-AT isoforms has been shown to exist in cells outside of the immune system, suggesting a possible mechanism for side effects associated with CSA treatment.(More)
Angiotensin II is an important effector molecule controlling blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system. Its importance is manifested by the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Angiotensin II interacts with two pharmacologically distinct subtypes of cell-surface(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca(2+)-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA(More)
Receptors for the serine protease thrombin and for lysophospholipids are coupled to G proteins and control a wide range of cellular functions, including mitogenesis. Activators of these receptors are present in blood, and can enter the brain during central nervous system (CNS) injury. Reactive astrogliosis, a prominent component of CNS injury with(More)
One of the primary physiological roles of group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) is to presynaptically reduce synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses. Interestingly, previous studies suggest that presynaptic mGluRs are tightly regulated by protein kinases. cAMP analogs and the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin inhibit(More)
Expression of the antigen-regulated, cyclosporin A-sensitive nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is not restricted to lymphoid cells, as thought initially, but the physiological inducers of NFAT-mediated transcription in non-lymphoid cells are unknown. Here, cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are shown to express two isoforms of the NFAT(More)
Transcriptional responses to growth factor and G protein-coupled receptors were compared in PC12 cells using retroviral luciferase reporters. In cells stably expressing alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptors, norepinephrine activated all five reporters [AP1 (activator protein-1), SRE (serum response element), CRE (cyclic AMP response element), NFkappaB) (nuclear(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of glutamate receptors that are coupled to a variety of second messenger systems through GTP-binding proteins. Of the eight subtypes cloned to date, mGluR1 and mGluR5 are coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in expression systems, and both are activated by the glutamate analogue(More)
NF kappaB has been implicated as a downstream effector of G alphaq-coupled receptor signaling, but whether these and cytokine receptors activate NF kappaB similarly remains unclear. Stimulation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell G alphaq-coupled P2Y nucleotide receptors with UTP induces luciferase transcription from a sensitive and specific NF kappaB(More)
The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) was discovered as an inducible transcription factor activated by antigen stimulation of the T cell receptor in lymphocytes. Stimulation of NFAT-mediated transcription is now reported in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells following activation of a neurotransmitter receptor. Carbachol induces robust luciferase(More)