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The widely used immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CSA) blocks nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), preventing its activity. mRNA for several NF-AT isoforms has been shown to exist in cells outside of the immune system, suggesting a possible mechanism for side effects associated with CSA treatment.(More)
Angiotensin II is an important effector molecule controlling blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system. Its importance is manifested by the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Angiotensin II interacts with two pharmacologically distinct subtypes of cell-surface(More)
The ability to target gene deletion to a specific cellular compartment via the Cre/loxP system has been a powerful tool in the analysis of broadly expressed genes. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic mouse line in which expression of Cre-recombinase is under the regulatory control of the VE-Cadherin promoter. Temporal distribution and activity of(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca(2+)-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA(More)
Receptors for the serine protease thrombin and for lysophospholipids are coupled to G proteins and control a wide range of cellular functions, including mitogenesis. Activators of these receptors are present in blood, and can enter the brain during central nervous system (CNS) injury. Reactive astrogliosis, a prominent component of CNS injury with(More)
Shear stress enhances expression of Ca(2+)-calmodulin-sensitive endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) mRNA and protein in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). The present studies were performed to investigate mechanisms responsible for regulation of ecNOS mRNA expression by shear stress and to determine if this induction of ecNOS mRNA is(More)
This study sought to determine whether angiogenic blood vessels in disease models preferentially bind and internalize cationic liposomes injected intravenously. Angiogenesis was examined in pancreatic islet cell tumors of RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice and chronic airway inflammation in Mycoplasma pulmonis-infected C3H/HeNCr mice. For comparison, physiological(More)
Vaccine adjuvants help antigens elicit rapid, potent, and long-lasting immune responses. The lack of understanding of the immunological mechanism of action of adjuvants has limited the rational development of vaccines for human use. In particular, little is known about how the immune system processes adjuvants. The goal of the present study was to determine(More)
Messenger RNA transcripts are coated from cap to tail with a dynamic combination of RNA binding proteins that process, package, and ultimately regulate the fate of mature transcripts. One class of RNA binding proteins essential for multiple aspects of mRNA metabolism consists of the poly(A) binding proteins. Previous studies have concentrated on the(More)
Chronic inflammation is associated with blood vessel proliferation and enlargement and changes in vessel phenotype. We sought to determine whether these changes represent different types of angiogenesis and whether they are stimulus dependent. Chronic airway inflammation, produced by infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis, was compared in strains of mice known(More)