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BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of microbial diseases in humans. The genomes of 44 diverse strains of S. pneumoniae were analyzed and compared with strains of non-pathogenic streptococci of the Mitis group. RESULTS Despite evidence of extensive recombination, the S. pneumoniae phylogenetic tree revealed six major(More)
A class of anti-virulence compounds, the salicylidene acylhydrazides, has been widely reported to block the function of the type three secretion system of several Gram-negative pathogens by a previously unknown mechanism. In this work we provide the first identification of bacterial proteins that are targeted by this group of compounds. We provide evidence(More)
Induction of the immediate early gene protein product Fos has been used extensively to assess neural activation in the striatum after repeated amphetamine administration to rats in their home cages. However, this technique has not been used to examine striatal activation after repeated administration outside the home cage, an environment where repeated drug(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP) patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are(More)
In humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, a disease with high attributable mortality and frequent permanent neurological sequelae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the central nervous system tropism of SPN are incompletely understood, but include a primary interaction of the pathogen with the blood-brain(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that often carries temperate bacteriophages. As part of a program to characterize the genetic makeup of prophages associated with clinical strains and to assess the potential roles that they play in the biology and pathogenesis in their host, we performed comparative genomic analysis of 10 temperate(More)
Macrophages are resistant to constitutive apoptosis, but infectious stimuli can induce either microbial or host-mediated macrophage apoptosis. Phagocytosis and killing of opsonized pneumococci by macrophages are potent stimuli for host-mediated apoptosis, but the link between pneumococcal killing and apoptosis induction remains undefined. We now show(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae of serotype 3 possess a mucoid capsule and cause disease associated with high mortality rates relative to other pneumococci. Phylogenetic analysis of a complete reference genome and 81 draft sequences from clonal complex 180, the predominant serotype 3 clone in much of the world, found most sampled isolates belonged to a clade(More)
This preliminary cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine if there were measurable relationships between posture, back muscle endurance and low back pain (LBP) in industrial workers with a reported history of flexion strain injury and flexion pain provocation. Clinical reports state that subjects with flexion pain disorders of the lumbar spine(More)
BACKGROUND This study determined mRNA expression levels for Src kinase family (SFK) members in breast tissue specimens and assessed protein expression levels of prominent SFK members in invasive breast cancer to establish associations with clinical outcome. Ki67 was investigated to determine association between SFK members and proliferation. METHODS The(More)