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Climate warming will thaw permafrost, releasing trapped carbon from this high-latitude reservoir and further exacerbating global warming. T he carbon content of Earth's atmosphere has increased from ~360 gigatons (Gt)—mainly as CO 2 —during the last glacial maximum to ~560 Gt during preindus-trial times and ~730 Gt today. These changes reflect(More)
Putative sites of acetylcholine synthesis in the retina of the embryonic and posthatched chick were localized immunohistochemically with antisera to choline acetyltransferase; the resultant choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity (ChAT-IR) was compared to demonstrated sites of acetyltransferase (AChE) activity, and changes were followed in(More)
Kainic acid (KA, 12.5-100 nmol) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA 25-250 nmol) was injected into the vitreous of one eye of urethane anaesthetized cats. Pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) were recorded to transient contrast reversing bars. Scotopic luminance electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to blue flashes. All doses of KA reduced the oscillatory(More)
We present the first results from a time-dependent chemical model to include a gas-phase reaction scheme for producing doubly-deuterated species. Under normal conditions the formation of these species is inefficient. However, when the effects of the freeze out of gas phase species onto grains is included in the chemistry we find that the fractionation of(More)
Cholinergic amacrine cells of the chicken retina were detected by immunohistochemistry using an antiserum against affinity-purified chicken choline acetyltransferase. Three populations of cells were detected: type I cholinergic amacrine cells had cell bodies on the border of the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers and formed a prominent laminar band in(More)
Cholinergic amacrine cells in the rabbit retina have been detected by localizing choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity. The characteristic array of normally placed and displaced amacrine cells was detected, as were two major synaptic plexuses in the inner plexiform layer. At the ultrastructural level, the most striking feature was the existence of(More)
AIM To look for a subcomponent of the mFERG generated at the optic nerve head and increasing in latency with distance from it. To compare multifocal electroretinogram (mFERG, mPERG) changes to those in full field ERGs and transient and steady state pattern and focal ERGs (PERGs, FERGs) in cats with total unilateral optic nerve section. METHOD We recorded(More)
We recorded pattern electroretinograms, scotopic threshold responses, oscillatory potentials and ganzfeld flash electroretinograms in patients with glaucoma or other optic nerve diseases and in cats with inner retinal damage caused by intravitreal injections of kainic acid. In both studies, the scotopic b-wave and the scotopic threshold responses were(More)
In the chicken retina, choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity (ChAT-LI) defines three populations of cholinergic amacrine cells and two terminal bands in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry defines two prominent bands within the IPL which corresponded to those containing ChAT. Other AChE-positive bands in the(More)
Ion channels present in isolated glial (Müller) cells from the retina of the turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) were studied with the patch clamp technique. The predominant conductance in these cells was due to an inward rectifying potassium current. The whole-cell conductance of the inward rectifier was 20.2 +/- 1.9 nS (n = 7 cells) in a standard(More)