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A method for estimating structural properties of random media is described. The size, number density, and scattering strength of particles are estimated from an analysis of the radio frequency (rf) echo signal power spectrum. Simple correlation functions and the accurate scattering theory of Faran [J.J. Faran, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 23, 405-418 (1951)], which(More)
Companding is a signal preprocessing technique for improving the precision of correlation-based time delay measurements. In strain imaging, companding is applied to warp 2-D or 3-D ultrasonic echo fields to improve coherence between data acquired before and after compression. It minimizes decorrelation errors, which are the dominant source of strain image(More)
Companding may be used as a technique for generating low-noise strain images. It involves warping radio-frequency echo fields in two dimensions and at several spatial scales to minimize decorrelation errors in correlation-based displacement estimates. For the appropriate experimental conditions, companding increases the sensitivity and dynamic range of(More)
The problem of estimation of mean scatterer spacing in an object containing regularly spaced structures is addressed. An autoregressive (AR) spectral estimation method is compared with a conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based approach for this task. Regularly spaced structures produce a periodicity in the power spectrum of ultrasonic backscatter.(More)
Renal vascular resistance is an important feature of kidney function and disease. To maintain adequate blood flow, renal vascular resistance varies in response to changes in systemic pressure. Vascular resistance is largely determined by arteriolar diameter, which is regulated by local and systemic factors. We used quantitative ultrasound techniques to(More)
Results of a human observer performance study using a new ultrasound contrast-detail (CD) phantom are reported. The new phantom allows estimates of the fundamental statistical uncertainties involved in CD analysis. Results of these experiments show that observers generally considered to be "trained" require experience at the specific task of low-contrast(More)
This paper describes an extension of our broadband method for estimating backscatter coefficients from random media to include data from array transducers. Four different transducer designs have now been considered: oneand two-dimensional linear arrays, annular arrays, and single-element focused pistons commonly used in mechanical sector scanners. The(More)
Acoustic properties of two types of soft tissue-like media were measured as a function of compressive strain. Samples were subjected to uniaxial strains up to 40% along the axis of the transducer beam. Measurements were analyzed to test a common assumption made when using pulse-echo waveforms to track motion in soft tissues--that local properties of wave(More)
Contrast-detail (CD) analysis was used to compare the low-contrast detection capabilities of expert observers using different array-type scanhead technologies. Five expert observers viewed five different contrast targets to obtain CD curves for each scanhead. Differences in CD curves are interpreted in terms of the image contrast, resolution, and noise. It(More)
The goal of the study was to compare a cathode-ray-tube (CRT) digital display with film by using task-dependent image quality assessment methods. Contrast-detail analysis was utilized. Human observers performed a simple detection task, specifically, detecting a pillbox target in a uniform Poisson field, using either film or a digital display that employed a(More)