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The costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity are thought to have important ecological and evolutionary consequences, yet they are not as well understood as the benefits of plasticity. At least nine ideas exist regarding how plasticity may be costly or limited, but these have rarely been discussed together. The most commonly discussed cost is that of(More)
Network-aware applications can adjust their resource demands in response to changes in the availability of resources. Such applications must be able to obtain information about the status of the network resources. Providing such information to an application is conceptually simple, yet de ning an interface that addresses the needs of applications, as well(More)
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