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OBJECTIVE To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. DESIGN International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. SETTING Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands,(More)
This paper uses fundamental principles of energy physiology to define minimum cut-off limits for energy intake below which a person of a given sex, age and body weight could not live a normal life-style. These have been derived from whole-body calorimeter and doubly-labelled water measurements in a wide range of healthy adults after due statistical(More)
Refence centile curves show the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariate, often age. The LMS method summarizes the changing distribution by three curves representing the median, coefficient of variation and skewness, the latter expressed as a Box-Cox power. Using penalized likelihood the three curves can be fitted as cubic(More)
BACKGROUND The international (International Obesity Task Force; IOTF) body mass index (BMI) cut-offs are widely used to assess the prevalence of child overweight, obesity and thinness. Based on data from six countries fitted by the LMS method, they link BMI values at 18 years (16, 17, 18.5, 25 and 30 kg m(-2)) to child centiles, which are averaged across(More)
Reference curves for stature and weight in British children have been available for the past 30 years, and have recently been updated. However weight by itself is a poor indicator of fatness or obesity, and there has never been a corresponding set of reference curves to assess weight for height. Body mass index (BMI) or weight/height has been popular for(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe average levels of free-living energy expenditure in people from affluent societies and to determine the influence of body weight, height, age and sex. DESIGN Analysis of 574 measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE, assessed by the doubly-labelled water method); basal metabolic rate (BMR, directly measured or derived from(More)
  • T J Cole
  • European journal of clinical nutrition
  • 1990
It is now common practice to express child growth status in the form of SD scores. The LMS method provides a way of obtaining normalized growth centile standards which simplifies this assessment, and which deals quite generally with skewness which may be present in the distribution of the measurement (eg height, weight, circumferences or skinfolds). It(More)
The current reference curves of stature and weight for the UK were first published in 1966 and have been used ever since despite increasing concern that they may not adequately describe the growth of present day British children. Using current data from seven sources new reference curves have been estimated from birth to 20 years for children in 1990. The(More)
To update the British growth reference, anthropometric data for weight, height, body mass index (weight/height2) and head circumference from 17 distinct surveys representative of England, Scotland and Wales (37,700 children, age range 23 weeks gestation to 23 years) were analysed by maximum penalized likelihood using the LMS method. This estimates the(More)
The fundamental principles of energy physiology were used to evaluate the validity of reported energy intake (EI) in 37 published dietary studies of adults providing 68 subgroups when classified according to sex and dietary method. EI was expressed as a multiple of BMR estimated using the reported heights and weights of the study populations (EI:BMR(est)).(More)