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OBJECTIVE To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. DESIGN International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. SETTING Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands,(More)
This paper uses fundamental principles of energy physiology to define minimum cut-off limits for energy intake below which a person of a given sex, age and body weight could not live a normal life-style. These have been derived from whole-body calorimeter and doubly-labelled water measurements in a wide range of healthy adults after due statistical(More)
Refence centile curves show the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariate, often age. The LMS method summarizes the changing distribution by three curves representing the median, coefficient of variation and skewness, the latter expressed as a Box-Cox power. Using penalized likelihood the three curves can be fitted as cubic(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe average levels of free-living energy expenditure in people from affluent societies and to determine the influence of body weight, height, age and sex. DESIGN Analysis of 574 measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE, assessed by the doubly-labelled water method); basal metabolic rate (BMR, directly measured or derived from(More)
Reference curves for stature and weight in British children have been available for the past 30 years, and have recently been updated. However weight by itself is a poor indicator of fatness or obesity, and there has never been a corresponding set of reference curves to assess weight for height. Body mass index (BMI) or weight/height has been popular for(More)
  • T J Cole
  • 1990
It is now common practice to express child growth status in the form of SD scores. The LMS method provides a way of obtaining normalized growth centile standards which simplifies this assessment, and which deals quite generally with skewness which may be present in the distribution of the measurement (eg height, weight, circumferences or skinfolds). It(More)
Epidemiological studies of bone mineral determinants rely heavily on measurements made with absorptiometric techniques such as single-photon absorptiometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. In general, absorptiometric data are expressed as areal densities (bone mineral density, BMD), obtained by dividing bone mineral content (BMC) by bone area or width(More)
BACKGROUND The international (International Obesity Task Force; IOTF) body mass index (BMI) cut-offs are widely used to assess the prevalence of child overweight, obesity and thinness. Based on data from six countries fitted by the LMS method, they link BMI values at 18 years (16, 17, 18.5, 25 and 30 kg m(-2)) to child centiles, which are averaged across(More)
This report provides Body Mass Index (weight/height2) values for the French population from birth to the age of 87 years. BMI curves increase during the first year, decrease until the age of 6, increase again up to 65 years and decrease thereafter. These variations reflect the total changes of fat body mass during life. The 50th centile values of Wt/Ht2 at(More)
The current reference curves of stature and weight for the UK were first published in 1966 and have been used ever since despite increasing concern that they may not adequately describe the growth of present day British children. Using current data from seven sources new reference curves have been estimated from birth to 20 years for children in 1990. The(More)