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This study examined the effects of long-term estrogen treatment (sc 17 beta-estradiol minipellets) on learning in C57BL/6J female and male mice using a position discrimination task in the T-maze and a win-stay task (1/8 arms baited) in the radial arm maze (RAM). In addition, hippocampal monoamines and ChAT activity were measured at the end of the study and(More)
We investigated the role of hippocampal amyloid pathology in spatial learning impairment of a new mouse line carrying mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenes. The APP + PS1 mice were tested in spatial navigation in the water maze and in position discrimination in the T-maze at ages of 3-4 and 11-12 months, before and(More)
We investigated the effects of ovariectomy (OVX) and 17 beta-estradiol (0.18 mg per pellet) treatment on spatial learning and memory, hippocampal beta amyloid (A beta) levels, and amyloid plaque counts in double transgenic mice (A/P) carrying mutated amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) and presenilin-1 (PS1-A246E). After OVX at 3 months of age, the mice(More)
Since both estrogen and NMDA receptor antagonists act on the hippocampus CA1 region and behaviorally affect hippocampal memory tasks, we examined how estrogen depletion (ovariectomy) and NMDA receptor antagonism interact upon spatial memory of the mouse. After ovariectomy or sham operation, mice were given a 2-week recovery before behavioral tests began(More)
Transgenic mice carrying mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) and presenilin (PS1, A246E) genes develop first amyloid plaques around 9 months of age, but up to 18 months of age, amyloid depositions in these mice were largely restricted to the hippocampus, subiculum, and neocortex. To assess the behavioral consequences of amyloid accumulation in(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by severe behavioral, cognitive, and motor deficits. Since the discovery of the huntingtin gene (HTT) mutation that causes the disease, several mouse lines have been developed using different gene constructs of Htt. Recently, a new model, the zQ175 knock-in (KI) mouse, was(More)
Spatial memory deficits occur earlier in female than male rodents as the animals age, and the cessation of estrous cycle has been suggested to play a role in this phenomenon. We examined the effects of long-term ovariectomy (OVX) and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) with subcutaneous 17beta-estradiol minipellets on maze learning in aged (24-month-old)(More)
In the traumatic brain injury (TBI) the initial impact causes both primary injury, and launches secondary injury cascades. One consequence, and a factor that may contribute to these secondary changes and functional outcome, is altered hemodynamics. The relative cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes in rat brain after severe controlled cortical impact injury(More)
This paper studies optimal investment and the dynamic cost of income uncertainty, applying a stochastic programming approach. The motivation is given by a case study in Finnish agriculture. Investment decision is modelled as a Markov decision process, extended to account for risk. A numerical framework for studying the dynamic uncertainty cost is presented(More)