Losacco et al 's 1 review of practice across European neonatal units regarding the use of non-pharmacological analgesia (NPA) for painful procedures in neonatal units has highlighted the relatively infrequent use of these techniques. This is despite good evidence confi rming the effectiveness of NPA 2 and evidence of deleterious effects of pain in babies,… (More)
In this paper, we introduce and define a new type of numbers called hyper real numbers and infinitesimal sets as a new type of sets in the set of real numbers ℝ .We use these concepts to define and characterize a relation between infinitesimal sets and hype real numbers.
In this paper, we use some concepts of nonstandard analysis to establish whether all solutions of the functional equation í µí² í µí² + í µí² = í µí² í µí² + í µí² í µí² can be described in terms of a functional equation of the form í µí² í µí² = í µí²í µí² , where í µí² is unlimited or limited.
The aim of this paper is to introduce and define the notion of external distance and the extreme of a collection of external numbers. More precisely under certain conditions we obtain the following results:
Exchange rate has great influence to the inflation and economic growth for a country. The importance of currency is that the great influence on import and export prices with the changes of exchange rate. Thus, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is used to fit finite mixture model. In this paper, a two-component mixture of normal distribution is used to… (More)
The aim of this paper is to present and study a new type of monads, named P-monad, which plays an important role in our approach to p-closed spaces, pre-Urysohn spaces ...etc. Also, we investigated some new properties and relationships between this monad with other types of monads by using some concepts of nonstandard analysis.
Microwave photonics is the use of photonic techniques for the generation, transmission, processing and reception of signals having spectral components at microwave frequencies. This tutorial reviews the technologies used and gives applications examples.