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Mice devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament protein specifically expressed in astrocytes, develop normally and do not show any detectable abnormalities in the anatomy of the brain. In the cerebellum, excitatory synaptic transmission from parallel fibers (PFs) or climbing fibers (CFs) to Purkinje cells is unaltered, and(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle metabolism is a major determinant of resting energy expenditure (REE). Although the severe muscle loss that characterizes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may alter REE, this has not been extensively investigated. METHODS We studied REE in 77 patients with DMD ranging in age from 10 to 37 years using a portable indirect(More)
The syntax of a requirement specification description language should be similar to the language in which the users think. We have developed a system called JISDOS in which a user can describe his requirements using a formalized Japanese language. The description language, called JPSL, is basically a translation of PSL with the syntactic characteristics of(More)
Cyclosporine-A (CsA) and its analogues have been shown to directly alter locomotor activity. The present study examined CsA effects on spontaneous preferential behavior in adult rats, using a two-shuttle compartment box. The initial preference (>450 s staying time) of the animal for one compartment was measured at pre-conditioning session (900 s). During(More)
Recently, we demonstrated that chronic administration of immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporine-A (CsA), does not produce impairment in memory retention of a passive avoidance task in normal adult rats. Since CsA has been used as an adjunctive therapy to avoid xenograft rejection inherent in neural transplantation therapy for neurodegenerative disorders, we(More)
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