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During the application of high-voltage pulses across the skin, transport of two negatively charged fluorescent molecules through the stratum corneum is highly localized. The apparent size of these localized transport regions (LTR's) is initially 10 microns in diameter for both calcein and sulforhodamine. Appearance of LTR's occurred at or above transdermal(More)
The temperature dependences of the reduction potentials (E degrees') of wild-type human myoglobin (Mb) and three site-directed mutants have been measured by the use of thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry. Residue Val68, which is in van der Waals contact with the heme in Mb, has been replaced by Glu, Asp, and Asn. The changes in E degrees' and the standard(More)
Current methods for high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins are capable of separating over 5000 protein spots in one procedure. Running and analysing such 2DE gels requires skilled technical work. However, the variable reproducibility of spot positions means that, even under the best circumstances, one gel cannot be overlain(More)
Agarose and polyacrylamide are the gels used for most analytical and micropreparative electrophoresis of biopolymers. In an alternative approach that offers different physico-chemical properties from these standard gels, nonionic hydrogels and amphigels composed of poly(N-acetylethylenimine) (PAEI) and a variety of cross-linkers were prepared and used as(More)
Many significant advances have occurred recently in the field of protein electrophoresis and related technologies. Improvements have been made in capillary electrophoresis in apparatus design, detection, and capillary modification with coatings and fillers. The transfer of proteins to a blot, the capacity to analyze and detect proteins on it, and the(More)
A new series of materials have been tested for their suitability as electrophoresis matrices. The mechanical and optical properties of gels composed of polyethyleneglycol (meth)acrylate esters or polyhydroxy (meth)acrylate esters in water and in various concentrations of organic solvents are described. Several crosslinkers including polyethyleneglycol and(More)
The properties of gels composed of poly(polyethyleneglycol methacrylate) and copolymers of polyethyleneglycol methacrylate and acrylamide were studied. These novel electrophoresis matrices are amphigels (swellable in water and organic solvents) that have unprecedented organic solvent compatibility. Hydrophobic proteins which are poorly solubilized in(More)
The properties of poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-acrylamide copolymer media (PEGMACs) were exploited in two ways: (i) in the first-dimensional gel of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of hydrophobic proteins and (ii) for high speed, high-resolution electrophoresis at low temperatures. In the first application, improved resolution and yield of(More)
Fluorescein-labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) corresponding to the promoters of the protooncogene c-myb (24-mer) and the oncogene c-myc (15-mer) were transported through the human skin in vitro by electroporation. Fluxes of 6.4 +/- 2.1 pM/cm2* hr and 11.5 +/- 3.5 pM/cm2* hr, respectively, were achieved during exponential pulsing [tau pulse =(More)
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, low-grade, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that may occur anywhere on the skin. It is slow growing, enlarges relentlessly, and invades locally. Most cutaneous verrucous carcinomas are found on the plantar surface of the foot, and share many gross and histological characteristics common to the ubiquitous verruca(More)