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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. METHODS In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected(More)
BACKGROUND Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV-1 infection. However, an assessment of a temporal effect was not possible. OBJECTIVES To determine the association of BV and other disturbances of vaginal flora with HIV seroconversion among pregnant and postnatal women in Malawi, Africa. DESIGN(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine rates of HIV-1 and sexually transmitted disease (STD) among pregnant and postpartum women in urban Malawi, Africa. DESIGN Serial cross-sectional surveys and a prospective study. METHODS Three major surveys were conducted in 1990, 1993 and 1994/1995. Consecutive first-visit antenatal women and women giving birth at the Queen(More)
BACKGROUND Effective strategies are urgently needed to reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through breast-feeding in resource-limited settings. METHODS Women with HIV-1 infection who were breast-feeding infants were enrolled in a randomized, phase 3 trial in Blantyre, Malawi. At birth, the infants were(More)
An understanding of the relationship between the breadth and magnitude of T-cell epitope responses and viral loads is important for the design of effective vaccines. For this study, we screened a cohort of 46 subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals for T-cell responses against a panel of peptides corresponding to the(More)
BACKGROUND Large simple trials which aim to study therapeutic interventions and epidemiological associations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including perinatal transmission, in Africa may have substantial rates of loss to follow-up. A better understanding of the characteristics and the impact of women and children lost to follow-up is(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to determine the relative effect of malaria infection on HIV concentration in blood plasma, and prospectively to monitor viral concentrations after antimalarial therapy. DESIGN A prospective, double cohort study was designed to compare the blood HIV-1 RNA concentrations of HIV-positive individuals with and without(More)
Disturbances of vaginal flora are common among women of reproductive age. In areas of sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of HIV is high, the frequency of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is also high. In this study, we assessed the association of BV and other disturbances of vaginal flora with prevalent HIV infection in two cross-sectional studies among(More)
BACKGROUND Increased fertility rates in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been attributed to improved immunological function; it is unknown to what extent the rise in pregnancy rates is due to unintended pregnancies. METHODS Non-pregnant women ages 18-35 from four public-sector ART clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa, were(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of HIV-1. GOAL The goal of this study was to inform HIV prevention and vaccine trials by conducting a multisite study in Malawi and Zimbabwe. STUDY DESIGN Women of reproductive age were enrolled in a prospective study. They received 5 intensive HIV counseling and condom promotion(More)