T. E. Christopher

Learn More
The computational predictions for the imaging potential of the second harmonic produced by finite amplitude distortion were investigated with a simple experiment. A focused transducer containing concentric 2.5 MHz and 5.0 MHz elements was used to obtain a sequence of radio-frequency (r-f) backscattered signals using a tissue equivalent phantom. The 2.5 MHz(More)
A computational nonlinear beam propagation model was used to compute the water path and in situ fields of a phased array transducer operating at 2 MHz. The computational source was matched to the transducer's z = 10 cm focal plane field. Subsequent computed propagations considered this source operating at source amplitudes up to 1.49 MPa in a water medium(More)
By ignoring the effects of nonlinear propagation, current exposimetry protocols may yield significant underestimates of the acoustic pressure in situ. This problem can be avoided simply by (1) extrapolating pressures linearly from low amplitude measurements in water and (2) linearly derating these values to obtain estimates of fields in situ. The mechanical(More)
Formulation of indices that can be used as predictors of biological effects of ultrasound involves a process called derating, in which measurements of the sound field made in water are extrapolated to estimates of the magnitude of the sound fields in the tissues of the body. All indices that have been formulated up to the present time assume that the(More)
The use of the second harmonic bandwidth in order to improve the contrast enhancement of vascular space provided by microbubble echo contrast is well established. A significant obstacle to improving on the contrast advantage of the second harmonic bandwidth arises from the linear response of tissue to the finite amplitude distortion produced second harmonic(More)
Activity since 1995 at Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat has alternated between andesite lava extrusion and quiescence, which are well correlated with seismicity and ground deformation cycles. Large variations in SO2 flux do not correlate with these alternations, but high and low HCl/SO2 characterize lava dome extrusion and quiescent periods(More)
A measure of focusing efficiency is introduced for high-intensity, focused ultrasound (HIFU). The measure consists of the fraction of the total acoustic power emitted that linearly propagates through a circle located at the focus. The medium is absorption-free water, and power is computed using pressure and the normal component of velocity. 3 MHz(More)
The computational modeling of a Dornier HM3 electrohydraulic, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter is considered. In order to produce large amplitude shock waves for the purpose of pulverizing renal and ureteric calculi (stones), the HM3 uses a hemi-ellipsoidal bowl to focus the spherical field generated by a high-voltage spark gap. The initial(More)