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Transgenic pigs were generated that produced human protein C in their milk at up to 1 g/liter. The gene construct was a fusion gene consisting of the cDNA for human protein C inserted into the first exon of the mouse whey acidic protein gene. These results demonstrate that the mouse whey acidic protein gene contains regulatory elements that can direct cDNA(More)
Amebic colitis is an important worldwide parasitic disease for which there is not a well-established animal model. In this work we show that intracecal inoculation of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites led to established infection in 60% of C3H mice, while C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice were resistant, including mice genetically deficient for IL-12, IFN-gamma, or(More)
A Giardia lamblia antigen detected by the TechLab Giardia Test (TechLab, Inc., Blacksburg, Va.) and the Alexon ProSpecT Giardia microplate assay (Alexon, Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.) was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from supernatant fluids of encystment cultures. Two major proteins (Mr 22,000 and 26,000) were observed by sodium dodecyl(More)
Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the normal colonic microflora of most mammals and is the most commonly isolated anaerobe from human clinical specimens. Some strains produce a toxin (fragilysin, a zinc-metalloproteinase) implicated as a cause of diarrheal disease in farm animals and humans. Studies in our laboratory confirm that the proteolytic activity(More)
Several different nomenclatures have been applied to the Clostridium difficile toxins and their associated genes. This paper summarizes the new nomenclature that has been agreed to by the research groups currently active in the field. The revised nomenclature includes C. difficile toxins and other related large clostridial toxins produced by Clostridium(More)
We evaluated Clostridium difficile prevalence rates in 2,807 clinically indicated stool specimens stratified by inpatient (IP), nursing home patient (NH), outpatient (OP), age, gender, and specimen consistency using bacterial culture, toxin detection, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping. Rates were determined based on the detection of toxigenic(More)
Various pathogenic clostridia produce binary protein toxins associated with enteric diseases of humans and animals. Separate binding/translocation (B) components bind to a protein receptor on the cell surface, assemble with enzymatic (A) component(s), and mediate endocytosis of the toxin complex. Ultimately there is translocation of A component(s) from(More)
Some strains of Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium spiroforme and Clostridium difficile produce binary toxins known respectively as iota toxin, S toxin and CDT. Each toxin consists of two unlinked polypeptides (e.g. CDTa and CDTb) that only together have biological activity. Taking an historical perspective, we review the development and early use of(More)