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Ten Bacteroides species found in the human colon were surveyed for their ability to ferment mucins and plant polysaccharides ("dietary fiber"). A number of strains fermented mucopolysaccharides (heparin, hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulfate) and ovomucoid. Only 3 of the 188 strains tested fermented beef submaxillary mucin, and none fermented porcine gastric(More)
Clostridium difficile is the etiologic agent of pseudomembranous colitis, a severe, sometimes fatal disease that occurs in adults undergoing antimicrobial therapy. The disease, ironically, has been most effectively treated with antibiotics, although some of the newer methods of treatment such as the replacement of the bowel flora may prove more beneficial(More)
TxeR, a sigma factor that directs Clostridium difficile RNA polymerase to recognize the promoters of two major toxin genes, was shown to stimulate its own synthesis. Whether expressed in C. difficile, Clostridium perfringens, or Escherichia coli, TxeR stimulated transcription of fusions of the txeR promoter region to reporter genes. As is the case for the(More)
Transgenic pigs were generated that produced human protein C in their milk at up to 1 g/liter. The gene construct was a fusion gene consisting of the cDNA for human protein C inserted into the first exon of the mouse whey acidic protein gene. These results demonstrate that the mouse whey acidic protein gene contains regulatory elements that can direct cDNA(More)
During the past decade, strains of Bacteroides fragilis that produce an enterotoxin have been implicated in diarrheal disease in animals and humans. The extracellular enterotoxin has been purified and characterized as a single polypeptide (M(r), approximately 20,000). Single specific primer-PCR was used to clone a portion of the B. fragilis enterotoxin(More)
A total of 154 strains from 22 species of Bifidobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, Eubacterium, and Fusobacterium, which are present in high concentrations in the human colon, were surveyed for their ability to ferment 21 different complex carbohydrates. Plant polysaccharides, including amylose, amylopectin, pectin,(More)
We evaluated Clostridium difficile prevalence rates in 2,807 clinically indicated stool specimens stratified by inpatient (IP), nursing home patient (NH), outpatient (OP), age, gender, and specimen consistency using bacterial culture, toxin detection, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping. Rates were determined based on the detection of toxigenic(More)
The intestinal effects of Clostridium difficile toxin A are inidated by toxin binding to luminal enterocyte receptors. We reported previously that the rabbit ileal brush border (BB) receptor is a glycoprotein with an alpha-d-galactose containing trisaccharide in the toxin-binding domain (1991. J. Clin. Invest. 88:119-125). In this study we characterized the(More)
Clostridium difficile toxins A and B are the widely recognized etiologic agents of antibiotic-associated diseases ranging from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. We hypothesized that C. difficile toxins may alter intestinal epithelial permeability and facilitate bacterial penetration of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Experiments were designed to(More)