T. D. Wilkins

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Clostridium difficile is the etiologic agent of pseudomembranous colitis, a severe, sometimes fatal disease that occurs in adults undergoing antimicrobial therapy. The disease, ironically, has been most effectively treated with antibiotics, although some of the newer methods of treatment such as the replacement of the bowel flora may prove more beneficial(More)
We examined the activities of Clostridium difficile toxin preparations given intragastrically to hamsters, mice, and rats. The culture filtrate from a highly toxigenic strain of C. difficile caused hemorrhage and accumulation of fluid in the small intestine and cecum, diarrhea, and death in hamsters and mice. In rats, the culture filtrate caused only a(More)
TxeR, a sigma factor that directs Clostridium difficile RNA polymerase to recognize the promoters of two major toxin genes, was shown to stimulate its own synthesis. Whether expressed in C. difficile, Clostridium perfringens, or Escherichia coli, TxeR stimulated transcription of fusions of the txeR promoter region to reporter genes. As is the case for the(More)
A total of 154 strains from 22 species of Bifidobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, Eubacterium, and Fusobacterium, which are present in high concentrations in the human colon, were surveyed for their ability to ferment 21 different complex carbohydrates. Plant polysaccharides, including amylose, amylopectin, pectin,(More)
During the past decade, strains of Bacteroides fragilis that produce an enterotoxin have been implicated in diarrheal disease in animals and humans. The extracellular enterotoxin has been purified and characterized as a single polypeptide (M(r), approximately 20,000). Single specific primer-PCR was used to clone a portion of the B. fragilis enterotoxin(More)
The Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin is an extracellular zinc metalloprotease that has been implicated in diarrheal disease of humans and animals. This toxin causes fluid accumulation in intestinal loops and is cytotoxic for HT-29 cells, an intestinal carcinoma cell line. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of the toxin gene (bftP). bftP is 1191(More)
Transgenic pigs were generated that produced human protein C in their milk at up to 1 g/liter. The gene construct was a fusion gene consisting of the cDNA for human protein C inserted into the first exon of the mouse whey acidic protein gene. These results demonstrate that the mouse whey acidic protein gene contains regulatory elements that can direct cDNA(More)
The gene encoding the toxin A protein of Clostridium difficile (strain VPI 10463) was cloned and sequenced. The coding region of 8,133 base pairs had a mol% G + C of 26.9 and encodes 2,710 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide has a molecular mass of ca. 308 kilodaltons. Nearly a third of the gene, at the 3' end, consists of 38 repeating sequences. The(More)
1. Anaerobic incubation of levamisole with human intestinal flora resulted in the formation of three thiazole ring-opened metabolites, namely, levametabol-I, II and III. These new hydroxamic lactam-type metabolites were isolated and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. 2. Various pure cultures of human intestinal bacterial strains were shown, by(More)
Amebic colitis is an important worldwide parasitic disease for which there is not a well-established animal model. In this work we show that intracecal inoculation of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites led to established infection in 60% of C3H mice, while C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice were resistant, including mice genetically deficient for IL-12, IFN-gamma, or(More)