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Simulated large aspen tortrix (Choristoneura conflictana) herbivory of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) induces significant increases in concentrations of two phenol glycosides, salicortin and tremulacin, in leaves within 24 hr. Crushing of leaf tissue, as must occur when aspen leaves are eaten by chewing insects such as the large aspen tortrix, results(More)
The carbon/nutrient balance hypothesis fails to correctly predict effects of fertilization and shading on concentrations of defensive metabolites in Alaskan balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Of six metabolites analyzed, only one responded in the predicted fashion to fertilization and one to shading. These results and those of other similar studies(More)
Mature growth-phase internodes of Alaska paper birch (Betula resinifera) are preferred by the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) over juvenile growth-phase internodes due to the low food value of the latter. While the mature over juvenile preferencec cannot be explained by the levels of inorganic nutrients or gross chemical fractions (resins or phenols), it(More)
We investigated the effects of nitrogen fertilization upon the concentrations of nitrogen, condensed tannin and phenolic glycosides of young quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaves and the quality of these leaves as food for larvae of the large aspen tortrix (Choristoneura conflictana), a Lepidopteran that periodically defoliates quaking aspen growing in(More)
Forests on the Haida Gwaii (HG) archipelago (British Columbia, Canada) evolved for about 10,000 years in the absence of large-mammal browsing. The introduction of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) from the mainland prior to 1901 provides an opportunity to evaluate changes in the adaptive defensive responses of plants to herbivory. We(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol use is increasing among women in Africa, and comparable information about women's current alcohol use is needed to inform national and international health policies relevant to the entire population. This study aimed to provide a comparative description of alcohol use among women across 20 African countries. METHODS Data were collected(More)
Palatabilities of parts and growth stages of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are related to concentrations of specific plant metabolites that act as antifeedants. Buds are defended from hares by cineol, benzyl alcohol, and (+)-α-bisabolol. Internodes are defended by 6-hydroxycylohexenone (6-HCH) and salicaldehyde.(More)
ABSTRACT Aims This paper describes drinking patterns in 20 African countries, exploring the extent of abstention, heavy occasional drinking and daily light drinking and how these aspects of drinking are inter-related. Design and participants Data were collected as part of the World Health Survey in 2002-04 and comprise national representative data sets from(More)
Condensed tannins were isolated from bitterbnish (Purshia tridentata) and blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima). Structural analyses showed that both tannins were procyanidins of similar polymer length. The overall stereochemistries at C-3 and C-4, however, differed between the two tannins. These changes in stereochemistry resulted in blackbrush tannins being(More)
The growth–differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) postulates that variation in resource availability can increase or decrease allocation to secondary metabolism, depending on how growth is affected relative to carbon assimilation. Growth and leaf area of black poplar (Populus nigra) increased substantially in response to increased nutrient availability,(More)