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Retinal rods respond to light with a membrane hyperpolarization produced by a G-protein-mediated signalling cascade that leads to cyclic GMP hydrolysis and the consequent closure of a cGMP-gated channel that is open in darkness. A protein that forms this channel has recently been purified from bovine retina and molecularly cloned, suggesting that the native(More)
T lymphocyte activation is highlighted by the induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression, which governs much of the early lymphocyte proliferation responses. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. PPARgamma mRNA expression was found in(More)
Although several ion channels have been reported to be directly modulated by calcium-calmodulin, they have not been conclusively shown to bind calmodulin, nor are the modulatory mechanisms understood. Study of the olfactory cyclic nucleotide-activated cation channel, which is modulated by calcium-calmodulin, indicates that calcium-calmodulin directly binds(More)
The GSG (GRP33, Sam68, GLD-1) domain is a protein module found in an expanding family of RNA-binding proteins. The numerous missense mutations identified genetically in the GSG domain support its physiological role. Although the exact function of the GSG domain is not known, it has been shown to be required for RNA binding and oligomerization. Here it is(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades underlie long-term mitogenic, morphogenic, and secretory activities of purinergic receptors. In HEK-293 cells, N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) activates endogenous A2BARs that signal through Gs and Gq/11. UTP activates P2Y2 receptors and signals only through Gq/11. The MAPK isoforms, extracellular-signal(More)
Sik (mouse Src-related intestinal kinase) and its orthologue BRK (human breast tumor kinase) are intracellular tyrosine kinases that are distantly related to the Src family and have a similar structure, but they lack the myristoylation signal. Here we demonstrate that Sik and BRK associate with the RNA binding protein Sam68 (Src associated during mitosis,(More)
Serotonin systems appear to play a key role in the pathogenesis of major depression and the therapeutic mechanisms of antidepressants. The firing rate of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons is controlled by somatodendritic 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (HTR1A) autoreceptors, and desensitization of these receptors is implicated in the antidepressant mechanism of(More)
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is the site of primary action for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Previous Western reports have demonstrated that the lallele of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic-region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with better SSRI antidepressive effects than the s allele, however, another study of a Korean(More)
Olfactory receptor neurons depolarize in response to odorant stimulation of their sensory cilia. One transduction mechanism involves a G-protein-mediated increase in adenylate cyclase activity, raising the internal cyclic AMP concentration to open a cyclic nucleotide-activated cation channel on the plasma membrane. An influx of Ca2+ through this channel,(More)