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Microelectrode arrays and microprobes have been widely utilized to measure neuronal activity, both in vitro and in vivo. The key advantage is the capability to record and stimulate neurons at multiple sites simultaneously. However, unlike the single-cell or single-channel resolution of intracellular recording, microelectrodes detect signals from all(More)
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein with a developmentally regulated expression of multiple isoforms. The neonatal isoform is devoid of two amino terminal inserts and contains only three instead of four microtubule-binding repeats (0N/3R-tau). We investigated the temporal expression pattern of 0N-tau and 3R-tau in the rat hippocampus. After the decline(More)
Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein are hallmarks of a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased tau phosphorylation is assumed to represent an early event in pathogenesis and a pivotal aspect for aggregation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. However, the regulation of tau phosphorylation in(More)
Neurofibrillar tangles made up of 'paired helical filaments' (PHFs) consisting of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau are major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tangle formation selectively affects certain neuronal types and systematically progresses throughout numerous brain areas, which reflects a hierarchy of neuronal(More)
Neuronal morphology and axonal growth during development are correlated to specific expression of various microtubule-associated protein tau isoforms. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting we found the unexpected result that the shift from fetal towards adult isoforms does not differ between rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum, two temporally differently(More)
The microtubule-associated protein tau, in its hyperphosphorylated form, is the major component of paired helical filaments and other aggregates in neurodegenerative disorders commonly referred to as "tauopathies". Recent evidence, however, indicates that mislocalization of hyperphosphorylated tau to subsynaptic sites leads to synaptic impairment and(More)
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein expressed predominantly in neurons. The transcript of the tau gene is alternatively spliced. Resulting isoforms contain three or four microtubule-binding repeats. The shortest tau isoform contains only three repeats (3R) and is expressed at birth. Previous data on rodents suggested that this isoform is no longer(More)
In Alzheimer's disease and related disorders, hyperphosphorylation of tau is associated with an increased activity of cyclin dependent kinase 5 (cdk5). Elevated cdk5 activity is thought to be due to the formation of p25 and thereby represents a critical element in the dysregulation of tau phosphorylation under pathological conditions. However, there is(More)
An antiserum against the nitric oxide (NO) synthetase labelled varicosities surrounding circadian pacemaker cells (" basal retinal neurons " , BRNs) in the eye of the marine mollusc Bulla gouldiana. These profiles appear to arise from extrinsic neurons with axons entering the eye via the optic nerve and are distinct from FMRFamide containing profiles ,(More)
The present paper provides an overview of adaptive changes in brain structure and learning abilities during hibernation as a behavioral strategy used by several mammalian species to minimize energy expenditure under current or anticipated inhospitable environmental conditions. One cellular mechanism that contributes to the regulated suppression of(More)