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Recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes to the injured spinal cord is a physiological response that is associated with the production of cytokines and proteinases that are involved in host defense and wound repair. Cells in the spinal cord are mainly post-mitotic and tissue regeneration is poor; thus, these inflammatory mediators can exacerbate the damage to(More)
Spinal contusion pathology in rats and mice is distinct. Cystic cavities form at the impact site in rats while a dense connective tissue matrix occupies the injury site in mice. Because inflammatory cells coordinate mechanisms of tissue injury and repair, we evaluated whether the unique anatomical presentation in spinally injured rats and mice is associated(More)
Lymphocytes respond to myelin proteins after spinal cord injury (SCI) and may contribute to post-traumatic secondary degeneration. However, there is increasing evidence that autoreactive T-lymphocytes may also convey neuroprotection and promote functional recovery after CNS injury. To clarify the role of myelin autoreactive lymphocytes after SCI, we(More)
Myelin-reactive T-cells are activated by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents and humans. Despite the historical association of these cells with experimental and clinical neuropathology, recent data suggest a neuroprotective role for myelin-reactive T-cells. Because of the biological and therapeutic implications of these findings, we attempted to(More)
The intraspinal cues that orchestrate T-cell migration and activation after spinal contusion injury were characterized using B10.PL (wild-type) and transgenic (Tg) mice with a T-cell repertoire biased toward recognition of myelin basic protein (MBP). Previously, we showed that these strains exhibit distinct anatomical and behavioral phenotypes. In Tg mice,(More)
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are highly susceptible to infection. This post-traumatic immune suppression is thought to occur via alterations in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Normally, the HPA axis and SNS help coordinate proper immune function. After SCI, the HPA axis becomes activated(More)
Postinjury inflammation has been implicated in secondary degeneration following injury to the spinal cord. The cellular inflammatory response to injury has not been described in the lateral compression injury model, although various types of compression injuries account for ∼20% of human spinal cord injuries (SCI). Here, we used forceps to induce a moderate(More)
The APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, is the primary genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele (APOE4) carriers have alterations in brain structure and function (as measured by brain imaging) even as young adults. Examination of this population is valuable in further identifying details of these functional(More)
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