T. B. Kirkwood

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Evolutionary considerations suggest aging is caused not by active gene programming but by evolved limitations in somatic maintenance, resulting in a build-up of damage. Ecological factors such as hazard rates and food availability influence the trade-offs between investing in growth, reproduction, and somatic survival, explaining why species evolved(More)
Ageing is not adaptive since it reduces reproductive potential, and the argument that it evolved to provide offspring with living space is hard to sustain for most species. An alternative theory is based on the recognition that the force of natural selection declines with age, since in most environments individuals die from predation, disease or starvation.(More)
The evolutionary theory of ageing explains why ageing occurs, giving valuable insight into the mechanisms underlying the complex cellular and molecular changes that contribute to senescence. Such understanding also helps to clarify how the genome shapes the ageing process, thereby aiding the study of the genetic factors that influence longevity and(More)
The disposable soma theory on the evolution of ageing states that longevity requires investments in somatic maintenance that reduce the resources available for reproduction. Experiments in Drosophila melanogaster indicate that trade-offs of this kind exist in non-human species. We have determined the interrelationship between longevity and reproductive(More)
In so far as it is associated with declining fertility and increasing mortality, senescence is directly detrimental to reproductive success. Natural selection should therefore act in the direction of postponing or eliminating senescence from the life history. The widespread occurrence of senescence is explained by observing that (i) the force of natural(More)
BACKGROUND The growing trend for women to postpone childbearing has resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of trisomic pregnancies. Maternal age-related miscarriage and birth defects are predominantly a consequence of chromosome segregation errors during the first meiotic division (MI), which involves the segregation of replicated recombined(More)
Thromboplastins vary in their sensitivity to the haemostatic defect induced by oral anticoagulants. To provide a means of standardising prothrombin time tests, the World Health Organization adopted in 1977 a scheme for calibrating thromboplastins in terms of an International Reference Preparation. Unfortunately, the model on which this scheme was based does(More)
We have tested the hypothesis that cell lineage restriction boundaries define the borders between cytoarchitectonic areas in the cerebral cortex. Clonally related cells were identified using a retroviral marking technique, and the dispersion of neuronal clones was examined with respect to the transitions between cortical areas. We chose to study the(More)
Four different heparin preparations--sodium and calcium salts of the same batch of heparin (mean molecular weight 15,000), low molecular weight sodium heparin (mean m.w. 9,000) and high molecular weight sodium heparin (mean m.w. 22,000) were injected subcutaneously on different days each into 6 healthy young volunteers in a randomized trial. Plasma heparin(More)
INTRODUCTION To investigate whether interstitial cells (ICs) are present in the adult mouse bladder, and what transmitters characterize adjacent nerve fibres, as ICs in human and guinea-pig bladder lie close to nerve fibres but transmitters present in these nerves have not yet been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sections of the bladder wall from 12 adult(More)