FORTRAN computer subroutines for the automatic computation of the optical aberration functions S, T, V, W, and K to the 15th order for rotationally symmetric systems are presented. The routines mayâ€¦ (More)

A method based on ray tracing equations is presented facilitating the computation of polynomial functions that predict the x and y intercepts, direction tangents, and optical path length of anâ€¦ (More)

Formulas are presented for the computation of derivatives of the optical aberration functions S, T, V, W, and K with respect to the relative refractive indices, leading to the chromatic aberrations,â€¦ (More)

The use of automatically computed aberration coefficients of arbitrary order for an exact determination of the surface of best focus of a symmetrical system, by minimizing the gyration radius of theâ€¦ (More)

The computation of rms spot radii from ray trace calculations is investigated in relation to the number of rays to be traced to achieve a prescribed accuracy. It is shown that the usual simpleâ€¦ (More)

The use of automatically computed aberration functions for an exact determination of the geometric illuminance and caustic surfaces is demonstrated. Numerical results for two optical systems studiedâ€¦ (More)

Simplified formulas are presented for the computation of derivatives of the optical aberration functions S,T,V,W, and K with respect to the axial surface distances for symmetrical optical systems.â€¦ (More)