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Seismic design loads for tunnels are characterized in terms of the deformations imposed on the structure by surrounding ground. The free-field ground deformations due to a seismic event are estimated, and the tunnel is designed to accommodate these deformations. Vertically propagating shear waves are the predominant form of earthquake loading that causes(More)
Surface wave method can be used to determine the properties of the component materials of a pavement structure. The measurements are made of the differences in the phase of a wave of the Rayleigh type, received at two points at known radial spacing from the source of the wave. Pavements for highways or airport runways are usually constructed of cement(More)
Evaluation of the accuracy of the pseudostatic approach is governed by the accuracy with which the simple pseudostatic inertial forces represent the complex dynamic inertial forces that actually exist in an earthquake. In this study, the Upper San Fernando and Kitayama earth dams, which have been designed using the pseudostatic approach and damaged during(More)
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