T. Ahmad

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OBJECTIVE Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal imaging modality to define cerebral white-matter injury (WMI) in preterm survivors, the histopathological features of MRI-defined chronic lesions are poorly defined. We hypothesized that chronic WMI is related to a combination of delayed oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cell death and arrested(More)
Children who survive preterm birth exhibit persistent unexplained disturbances in cerebral cortical growth with associated cognitive and learning disabilities. The mechanisms underlying these deficits remain elusive. We used ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate in a preterm large-animal model that cerebral ischemia impairs cortical(More)
BACKGROUND The envelope glycoprotein E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains several hypervariable regions. Interestingly, 2 regions of intragenotypic hypervariability within E2 have been described as being specific to HCV subtype 3a. Based on their amino acid position in E2, they were named HVR495 and HVR575. Here, we further investigated these regions in(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide, inflicting around one million people in Pakistan alone. The HCV genomic RNA harbors conserved structural elements that are indispensable for its replication. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) contains several of these elements essentially involved in regulating the(More)
This paper presents an investigation of the design optimization in microstrip lines to reduce the crosstalk level using Fuzzy Logic. In microstrip lines length and spacing, termination conditions of interconnection and output impedance of gates are the major components that cause crosstalk. In order to design high speed printed circuit board (PCB) with(More)
Photonic packet switches can offer high data rates and format transparency as required by future communication system. Although electronic technology can achieve high switching speed, it is not compatible with the transmission bandwidths of the fiber-optic links. This paper is concerned with all-optical time division multiplexing router based on all-optical(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of liver related morbidity and mortality in the world; with more than 180 million infected patients (1). HCV prevalence is very low in Iran. The recent reports from Iran showed that HCV prevalence in general population was about 0.05%-0.2% (2, 3). Due to globalization and traveling worldwide , especially to the(More)
Two new nonlinear spectral conjugate gradient methods for solving unconstrained optimization problems are proposed. One is based on the Hestenes and Stiefel (HS) method and the spectral conjugate gradient method. The other is based on a mixed spectral HS-CD conjugate gradient method, which combines the advantages of the spectral conjugate gradient method,(More)