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INTRODUCTION Enteric viruses, including Hepatitis E virus (HEV), are able to persist under environmental conditions and may cause public health problems by contaminating natural and drinking water resources. Routine procedures for monitoring viruses in water samples have not been established for the water microbiology screening panel. METHODOLOGY(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide, inflicting around one million people in Pakistan alone. The HCV genomic RNA harbors conserved structural elements that are indispensable for its replication. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) contains several of these elements essentially involved in regulating the(More)
BACKGROUND The envelope glycoprotein E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains several hypervariable regions. Interestingly, 2 regions of intragenotypic hypervariability within E2 have been described as being specific to HCV subtype 3a. Based on their amino acid position in E2, they were named HVR495 and HVR575. Here, we further investigated these regions in(More)
RNA viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), have markedly error-prone replication, resulting in high rates of mutagenesis. In addition, the standard treatment includes ribavirin, a base analog that is likely to cause mutations in different regions of the HCV genome, resulting in deleterious effects on HCV itself. The N-terminal region of the core protein(More)
This paper presents an investigation of the design optimization in microstrip lines to reduce the crosstalk level using Fuzzy Logic. In microstrip lines length and spacing, termination conditions of interconnection and output impedance of gates are the major components that cause crosstalk. In order to design high speed printed circuit board (PCB) with(More)
Photonic packet switches can offer high data rates and format transparency as required by future communication system. Although electronic technology can achieve high switching speed, it is not compatible with the transmission bandwidths of the fiber-optic links. This paper is concerned with all-optical time division multiplexing router based on all-optical(More)
Gastroenteritis causes from 4 to 10 million children deaths every year worldwide, mainly from infection with water-borne Enteroviruses, which consist of 67 diverse serogroups. Forty-two sewage and drinking water samples from three metropolitan cities of Pakistan were analyzed for the occurrence of Enterovirus by nested RT-PCR amplification. Molecular(More)
Two new nonlinear spectral conjugate gradient methods for solving unconstrained optimization problems are proposed. One is based on the Hestenes and Stiefel (HS) method and the spectral conjugate gradient method. The other is based on a mixed spectral HS-CD conjugate gradient method, which combines the advantages of the spectral conjugate gradient method,(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of liver related morbidity and mortality in the world; with more than 180 million infected patients (1). HCV prevalence is very low in Iran. The recent reports from Iran showed that HCV prevalence in general population was about 0.05%-0.2% (2, 3). Due to globalization and traveling worldwide , especially to the(More)
Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a computational method to solve Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem. In this study, an improved Fast ICA based on eighth-order Newton's method is proposed to solve BSS problems. Eight-order Newton's method for finding the solution of nonlinear equations is much faster than ordinary Newton's iterative method. The(More)