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The baculovirus expression vector system is considered to be a safe, powerful, but cell-lytic heterologous protein expression system in insect cells. We show here that there is a new baculovirus system for efficient gene transfer and expression using the popular and genetically well-understood Drosophila S2 cells. The recombinant baculovirus was constructed(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor with diverse biological functions. Signal transduction of GDNF is mediated by binding to a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked receptor GDNFR-alpha and activation of c-RET tyrosine kinase. The recent discovery of a new GDNF homolog neurturin raises the possibility that(More)
CLEC4F, a member of C-type lectin, was first purified from rat liver extract with high binding affinity to fucose, galactose (Gal), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and un-sialylated glucosphingolipids with GalNAc or Gal terminus. However, the biological functions of CLEC4F have not been elucidated. To address this question, we examined the expression and(More)
Galectin (Gal) family members are a type of soluble lectin, and they play important roles in immunomodulation. Their redundant roles have been proposed. We previously found that Gal-1 promotes the formation of Ab-secreting plasma cells, but B cells from Gal-1-deficient and control animals produce comparable amounts of Abs. In the current study, we used(More)
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble decoy receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, and its expression is not only up-regulated in cancer cells derived from various cell lineages, but also correlates with overall survival of patients with cancer. It has been shown that DcR3 sensitize cells of hematopoietic origin to(More)
The soluble decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the TNFR superfamily. Because DcR3 is up-regulated in tumor tissues and is detectable in the sera of cancer patients, it is regarded as an immunosuppressor to down-regulate immune responses. To understand the function of DcR3 in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing DcR3 systemically. In(More)
Human infections with influenza viruses exhibit mild to severe clinical outcomes as a result of complex virus-host interactions. Induction of inflammatory mediators via pattern recognition receptors may dictate subsequent host responses for pathogen clearance and tissue damage. We identified that human C-type lectin domain family 5 member A (CLEC5A)(More)
Losses from cooperator delivery delay may greatly undermine the supply chain network performance leading to losses in the increased business cost. This paper mainly discusses and explores how to create the optimized cooperators and industry sets intelligently in the supply chain network. A mathematical model and a genetic algorithm solving model for(More)