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Previous reports of lunotriquetral arthrodesis suggest relatively low rates of primary fusion without the use of permanent fixation and/or prolonged immobilization. We performed 26 lunotriquetral arthrodeses in 24 patients with a technique using cancellous bone graft to fill a biconcave space created in the adjoining bones with parallel K-wire fixation. The(More)
The JNK family of MAPKs is involved in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes in brain development, such as neural survival, migration, and polarity as well as axon regeneration. However, whether JNK activation is involved in axon guidance remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence indicating the JNK pathway is required for Netrin(More)
The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) are major afferents to the hippocampus and are important for learning, memory, and hippocampal theta rhythm. In the present study, we assessed the effect of cholinergic or noncholinergic MSDB lesions on the sequential learning of different goal locations in the same environment, a type of task that is(More)
Modulation of actin and microtubule (MT) dynamics in neurons is implicated in guidance cue-dependent axon outgrowth, branching and pathfinding. Although the role of MTs in axon guidance has been well known, how extracellular guidance signals engage MT behavior in axon branching remains unclear. Previously, we have shown that TUBB3, the most dynamic(More)
The coupling of axon guidance cues, such as netrin-1, to microtubule (MT) dynamics is essential for growth cone navigation in the developing nervous system. However, whether axon guidance signaling regulates MT dynamics directly or indirectly is unclear. Here, we report that TUBB3, the most dynamic β-tubulin isoform in neurons, directly interacts with the(More)
Precise modulation of the cytoskeleton is involved in a variety of cellular processes including cell division, migration, polarity, and adhesion. In developing post-mitotic neurons, extracellular guidance cues not only trigger signaling cascades that act at a distance to indirectly regulate microtubule distribution, and assembly and disassembly in the(More)
Genomes possess different levels of non-randomness, in particular, an inhomogeneity in their nucleotide composition. Inhomogeneity is manifest from the short-range where neighboring nucleotides influence the choice of base at a site, to the long-range, commonly known as isochores, where a particular base composition can span millions of nucleotides. A(More)
In the developing nervous system, neuronal growth cones explore the extracellular environment for guidance cues, which can guide them along specific trajectories toward their targets. Netrin-1, a bifunctional guidance cue, binds to deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and DSCAM mediating axon attraction, and UNC5 mediating axon repulsion. Here, we show that(More)
The pedagogical advantages of a general purpose interactive system called NEWBASIC/CATALYST are discussed. NEWBASIC/CATALYST incorporates an advanced implementation of BASIC, system-level interactive features, and a general capability for extension through user oriented function attachment. Application of this last feature to provide a flexible CAI scan(More)