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Independent component analysis (ICA) has become an increasingly utilized approach for analyzing brain imaging data. In contrast to the widely used general linear model (GLM) that requires the user to parameterize the data (e.g. the brain's response to stimuli), ICA, by relying upon a general assumption of independence, allows the user to be agnostic(More)
Multivariate analysis methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) have been applied to the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to study brain function. Because of the high dimensionality and high noise level of the fMRI data, order selection, i.e., estimation of the number of informative components, is critical to reduce(More)
Spatial independent component analysis (ICA) applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data identifies functionally connected networks by estimating spatially independent patterns from their linearly mixed fMRI signals. Several multi-subject ICA approaches estimating subject-specific time courses (TCs) and spatial maps (SMs) have been(More)
—A novel (differential) entropy estimator is introduced where the maximum entropy bound is used to approximate the en-tropy given the observations, and is computed using a numerical procedure thus resulting in accurate estimates for the entropy. We show that such an estimator exists for a wide class of measuring functions, and provide a number of design(More)
We propose a new entropy rate estimator for a second and/or higher-order correlated source by modeling it as the output of a linear filter, which can be mixed-phase, driven by Gaussian or non-Gaussian noise. Based on this estimator, we develop a new spatiotemporal blind source separation (BSS) algorithm, full BSS (FBSS), by minimizing the entropy rate of(More)
We introduce and apply a synthesis/analysis model for analyzing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data using independent component analysis (ICA). Our model assumes statistically independent spatial sources in the brain. We also assume that the fMRI scanner acquires overdetermined data such that there are more time points than brain sources. We(More)
Although the impact of serial correlation (autocorrelation) in residuals of general linear models for fMRI time-series has been studied extensively, the effect of autocorrelation on functional connectivity studies has been largely neglected until recently. Some recent studies based on results from economics have questioned the conventional estimation of(More)
Independent component analysis (ICA) is a popular blind source separation technique that has proven to be promising for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. A number of ICA approaches have been used for fMRI data analysis, and even more ICA algorithms exist; however, the impact of using different algorithms on the results is(More)