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The ABC transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) shuttles cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum for loading onto class I MHC molecules. Transport is fueled by ATP binding and hydrolysis at two distinct cytosolic ATPase sites. One site comprises consensus motifs shared among most ABC transporters, while the second has substituted,(More)
Tank-binding kinase I (TBK1) plays a key role in the innate immune system by integrating signals from pattern-recognition receptors. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of inhibitor-bound inactive and active TBK1 determined to 2.6 Å and 4.0 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal a compact dimer made up of trimodular subunits containing(More)
IKKepsilon is an IKK (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaBkinase)-related kinase implicated in virus induction of interferon-beta (IFNbeta). We report that, although mice lacking IKKepsilon produce normal amounts of IFNbeta, they are hypersusceptible to viral infection because of a defect in the IFN signaling pathway. Specifically, a subset of type I(More)
Virus infection induces the production of type I and type II interferons (IFN-I and IFN-II), cytokines that mediate the antiviral response. IFN-I (IFN-α and IFN-β) induces the assembly of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), a multimeric transcriptional activation complex composed of STAT1, STAT2, and IFN regulatory factor 9. IFN-II (IFN-γ) induces the(More)
RATIONALE Individuals with naturally occurring loss-of-function proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mutations experience reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and protection against cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to assess whether genome editing using a clustered regularly interspaced short(More)
We have modified the yeast two-hybrid system to enable the detection of protein-protein interactions that require a specific post-translational modification, using the acetylation of histones and the phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II as test modifications. In this tethered catalysis assay, constitutive modification(More)
A library of new thalidomide C4/5 analogues containing either a phenyl or alkyne tether were synthesized using Sonogashira or Suzuki cross coupling reactions from their aryl halogenated precursors. All thalidomide analogues were tested for their ability to inhibit the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF). More explicitly(More)
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