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BACKGROUND Patched 1 (Ptc1) is a polytopic receptor protein that is essential for growth and differentiation. Its extracellular domains accept its ligand, Sonic Hedgehog, while the function of its C-terminal intracellular domain is largely obscure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, we stably expressed human Ptc1 protein in HeLa cells and found that it is… (More)
The organic extracts of two licorices, known in commerce as Russian and Xinjiang licorices, exhibited potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The bioassay-directed chemical investigation of both licorices revealed glabrene, glabridin, and licochalcones A and B as active principles.