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2 " What do co-authors do? " Abstract How do people work when they are collaborating to write a document? What kind of tools do they use and, in particular, do they resort to groupware for this task? Forty-one people filled out a questionnaire placed on the World Wide Web. In spite of the existence of specialized collaborative writing tools, most(More)
We present 19 systems that have been developed over the past decade to support collaborative writing over the Web. The aim of this article is to present the state of the art on the use of the Web for collaborative writing and thus (1) help designers improve current systems or define future systems and (2) help users choose the most appropriate system to(More)
This paper investigates the impact of contradictory emotional content on people's ability to identify the emotion expressed on avatar faces as compared to human faces. Participants saw emotional faces (human or avatar) coupled with emotional texts. The face and text could either display the same or different emotions. Participants were asked to identify the(More)
A layered architecture for advanced collaborative environments has been developed to map the definition of a collaboration task from the requirements needed to accomplish the task, to the collaboration services that can be used to satisfy those needs, and to the technologies on which the services can be delivered. The architecture takes into account the(More)
Collaborative work with office suite documents such as word processing, spreadsheet and presentation files usually demands special tools and methods. For this application, we have developed TellTable, a relatively simple web-based framework built largely from available software and infrastructure. TellTable allows the use of existing office-suite software(More)
In this paper, we introduce and discuss Foreground Trust. Foreground Trust, itself based on recent work in the area of Trust Enable-ment, is a paradigm for allowing devices in a human-device ecosystem the means to reason with and about trust in themselves, other devices, and humans, whilst allowing humans to make trusting decisions using their own internal(More)