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The repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is involved in the formation of the central nervous system (CNS) during development by modulating guidance of growing axons. However, a role of RGM in CNS injury remains to be established. We studied the expression of RGM in the spinal cord of rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). After SCI, RGM+ cells accumulated in(More)
The DBA/2J mouse is a common animal model of glaucoma. The intraocular pressure increases with age, and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) degenerate, usually starting at an age of approximately six months. In this study, we used two-year-old DBA/2J mice presuming an end-point of RGC degeneration. We investigated visual function in these animals using(More)
The failure of lesioned mammalian CNS neurons to regenerate their axons remains a challenge. Evidence is emerging that repulsive proteins contribute to this failure. The repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMA) induces growth cone collapse in vitro, accumulates in the scar after spinal cord injury, and is up-regulated in glaucoma. In this study, we evaluated(More)
Organotypic cultures of postnatal day 1 (P1) to P7 mouse cerebella are well-established models for studying cell survival. In the present work, we investigate the involvement of the Rho/ROCK intracellular pathway in Purkinje cell survival by using organotypic cultures of P3 Swiss mice. Specific inhibitors of Rho or ROCK were applied at different(More)
PURPOSE The penetration of intravitreally injected bevacizumab in its commercial formulation (Avastin; Roche, Grenzach, Germany) through the retina was studied, to determine whether a full-length antibody would be able to penetrate the retina as easily as an antibody fragment. METHODS Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were used in this study.(More)
This work presents a combined light and electron microscopical approach to investigate the initial breakdown of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choriocapillaris (CC) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Perimacular sections of 12 dry and wet AMD eyes (82 ± 15 years) and 7 age-matched controls (75 ± 10 years) without retinal pathology were(More)
BACKGROUND Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of(More)
Lipofuscin is a cytologic hallmark of aging in metabolically active postmitotic cells including neurons, cardiac muscle cells, and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). High levels of lipofuscin are involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main cause of blindness in the elderly population in the western world. Degradation(More)
BACKGROUND Bevacizumab is an antiangiogenic compound developed to target tumour vessels. Its off-label use in ophthalmology requires in vitro testing on ocular cells. AIM To quantify the antipermeability and antiproliferative effects of bevacizumab on cultured choroidal endothelial cells (CECs). It was examined whether deep-freezing of bevacizumab(More)
BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection and follow-up of retinal pathology in patients and experimental disease models. However, as morphological structures and layering in health as well as their alterations in disease are complex, segmentation procedures have not yet reached a satisfactory level of(More)