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The repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is involved in the formation of the central nervous system (CNS) during development by modulating guidance of growing axons. However, a role of RGM in CNS injury remains to be established. We studied the expression of RGM in the spinal cord of rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). After SCI, RGM+ cells accumulated in(More)
BACKGROUND Since there is evidence that the Fc domain of antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs may cause unexpected consequences in retinal and choroidal vessels, the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab and aflibercept on monkey eyes were investigated. METHODS Four cynomolgus monkeys were intravitreally injected with 0.5 mg of ranibizumab and(More)
The DBA/2J mouse is a common animal model of glaucoma. The intraocular pressure increases with age, and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) degenerate, usually starting at an age of approximately six months. In this study, we used two-year-old DBA/2J mice presuming an end-point of RGC degeneration. We investigated visual function in these animals using(More)
This work presents a combined light and electron microscopical approach to investigate the initial breakdown of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choriocapillaris (CC) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Perimacular sections of 12 dry and wet AMD eyes (82 ± 15 years) and 7 age-matched controls (75 ± 10 years) without retinal pathology were(More)
AIMS To locate bevacizumab in the tissues related to neovascularisation in the anterior segment within 1-14 days after intravitreal injection in the primate eye. METHODS Four cynomolgus monkeys received an intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. Control eyes remained untreated. The eyes were enucleated on day 1, 4 and 14 for immunohistochemistry,(More)
Lipofuscin is a cytologic hallmark of aging in metabolically active postmitotic cells including neurons, cardiac muscle cells, and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). High levels of lipofuscin are involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main cause of blindness in the elderly population in the western world. Degradation(More)
PURPOSE The penetration of intravitreally injected bevacizumab in its commercial formulation (Avastin; Roche, Grenzach, Germany) through the retina was studied, to determine whether a full-length antibody would be able to penetrate the retina as easily as an antibody fragment. METHODS Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were used in this study.(More)
PURPOSE To examine the ultrastructural effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on primate eyes with particular focus set on the choriocapillaris and to examine the influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition on endothelial cell fenestration. DESIGN Animal study. METHODS Four Cynomolgus monkeys received an intravitreal injection of 1.25(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The chemokine receptor CCR5 is well known for its function in immune cells; however, it is also expressed in the brain, where its specific role remains to be elucidated. Because genetic factors may influence the risk of developing cerebral ischaemia or affect its clinical outcome, we have analysed the role of CCR5 in experimental(More)
PURPOSE It is known that endothelial cells in the kidney are also strongly VEGF-dependent. Whether intravitreal drugs can be detected within the glomeruli or affect VEGF in glomerular podocytes is not known. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of a single intravitreal injection of aflibercept and ranibizumab on glomeruli of(More)