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Regulatory T cells (T reg cells) play a major role in controlling the pathogenic autoimmune process in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interleukin 2 (IL-2), a cytokine which promotes T reg cell survival and function, may thus have therapeutic efficacy in T1D. We show that 5 d of low-dose IL-2 administration starting at the time of T1D onset can reverse established(More)
The absence of a detectable immune response during transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is likely due to the fact that the essential component of infectious agents, the prion protein (PrP), is a self Ag expressed on the surface of many cells of the host. To overcome self-tolerance to PrP, we used 30-mer PrP peptides previously shown to be immunogenic(More)
CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells (Tregs) can be administered to inhibit graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) while preserving graft-vs-leukemia activity after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice. Preclinical studies suggest that it is necessary to infuse as many Tregs as conventional donor T cells to achieve a clinical effect on GVHD. Thus, it would be(More)
Recipient-specific regulatory T cells (rsTreg) can prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by inhibiting donor T-cell expansion after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in mice. Importantly, in adult humans, because of thymus involution, immune reconstitution during the first months after HSCT relies on the peripheral expansion of donor T cells(More)
Abs to the prion protein (PrP) can protect against experimental prion infections, but efficient Ab responses are difficult to generate because PrP is expressed on many tissues and induces a strong tolerance. We previously showed that immunization of wild-type mice with PrP peptides and CpG oligodeoxynucleic acid overcomes tolerance and induces cellular and(More)
Several hurdles must be overcome in order to achieve efficient and safe immunotherapy against conformational neurodegenerative diseases. In prion diseases, the main difficulty is that the prion protein is tolerated as a self protein, which prevents powerful immune responses. Passive antibody therapy is effective only during early, asymptomatic disease, well(More)
There is to date no effective way of preventing or curing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The idea of treating those conditions by immunological approaches has progressively emerged over the last ten years. Encouraging results have been reported in Alzheimer disease and in peripheral forms(More)
Treg cells hold enormous promise for therapeutic application in GVH disease, a lethal complication of allogeneic HSC transplantation. Mouse studies showed that donor-derived recipient-specific Treg (rsTreg) cells are far more efficient than polyclonal Treg cells in suppressing GVH disease. However, clinical grade preparations of rsTreg cells carries the(More)
Transplantation of adult pancreatic islets has been proposed to cure type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, it is rarely considered in the clinic because of its transient effect on disease, the paucity of donors, and the requirement for strong immunosuppressive treatment to prevent allogeneic graft rejection. Transplantation of fetal pancreases (FPs) may(More)
—We report the first demonstration of a monolithic optical-frequency comb generator. The device is based on multi-section quaternary/quaternary eight-quantum-well InP–InGaAsP material in a frequency-modulated (FM) laser design. The modulation is generated using quantum-confined Stark-effect phase-induced refractive index modulation to achieve fast(More)