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New therapeutic strategies are needed to protect neonates, especially premature newborns, against brain injury and associated neurobehavioral deficits. The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, in the pathophysiological pathway leading to neonatal brain damage is increasingly recognized and represents an attractive therapeutic target. We(More)
Inflammatory molecules are promptly upregulated in the fetal environment and postnatally in brain-damaged subjects. Intrauterine infections and inflammation are often associated with asphyxia. This double-hit effect by combined infection or inflammation and hypoxia is therefore a frequent concomitant in neonatal brain damage. Animal models combining hypoxia(More)
BACKGROUND Preterm and term newborns are at high risk of brain damage as well as subsequent cerebral palsy and learning disabilities. Indeed, hypoxia-ischemia (HI), pathogen exposures, and associated intracerebral increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines have all been linked to perinatal brain damage. However, the developmental effects of potential variations(More)
Using a model of perinatal brain lesions induced by lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia/ischemia, we hypothesized that interleukin-2 (IL-2), a neurotoxic cytokine, was enhanced within injured brains. We showed that lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia/ischemia enhanced both intracerebral IL-2 mRNA and protein levels, with a maximum increase upon lipopolysaccharide and(More)
A preclinical model showed a direct role of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) system in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage, but evidence linking these findings to human white matter damage (WMD) requires confirmation in human cases. We analyzed the IL-1β system using immunohistochemistry to characterize the expression of IL-1 receptors (IL-1R1 and IL-1R2),(More)
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