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Macrophage can adopt several phenotypes, process call polarization, which is crucial for shaping inflammatory responses to injury. It is not known if microglia, a resident brain macrophage population, polarizes in a similar way, and whether specific microglial phenotypes modulate cell death in response to brain injury. In this study, we show that both(More)
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a major contributor to the burden of stroke on society. Treatment options are limited and animal models of SAH do not always mimic key pathophysiological hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering development of new therapeutics. Inflammation is strongly associated with brain injury after SAH in animals and patients, and(More)
BACKGROUND Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a group of environmental contaminants increasing in North America. Few data are available on neurobehavioral effects at low-dose exposure. OBJECTIVES Our goal in the present study was to evaluate whether low-dose BDE-47, which is the most abundant PBDE in human samples, affects the neurobehavioral(More)
New therapeutic strategies are needed to protect neonates, especially premature newborns, against brain injury and associated neurobehavioral deficits. The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, in the pathophysiological pathway leading to neonatal brain damage is increasingly recognized and represents an attractive therapeutic target. We(More)
Inflammatory molecules are promptly upregulated in the fetal environment and postnatally in brain-damaged subjects. Intrauterine infections and inflammation are often associated with asphyxia. This double-hit effect by combined infection or inflammation and hypoxia is therefore a frequent concomitant in neonatal brain damage. Animal models combining hypoxia(More)
Preterm birth (PTB) is firmly linked to inflammation regardless of the presence of infection. Proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, are produced in gestational tissues and can locally upregulate uterine activation proteins. Premature activation of the uterus by inflammation may lead to PTB, and IL-1 has been identified as a key inducer of this(More)
The precise role of maternal bacterial infection and inflammation occurring at the end of gestation is a controversial matter. Although it is recognized as an independent risk factor for neurodevelopmental diseases such as cerebral palsy, mental deficiency, and autism, it remains unclear whether it is causal or simply associated with the diseases. In this(More)
Preterm and term newborns are at high risk of brain damage as well as subsequent cerebral palsy and learning disabilities. Indeed, hypoxia-ischemia (HI), pathogen exposures, and associated intracerebral increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines have all been linked to perinatal brain damage. However, the developmental effects of potential variations of pro-(More)
Bacterial infections and hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) are implicated in human neonatal brain damage leading to cerebral palsy (CP). We developed an animal model presenting similar perinatal brain damage by combining bacterial endotoxin and H/I insults. Interleukin (IL)-1beta is a mediator of brain damage and its action(s) is counteracted by its cognate(More)
Interest is growing in the role of viral infections and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The trophoblast is permissive to viruses, but little is known about their impact on the placenta. We previously established that viral single stranded RNA (ssRNA), a Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist, induces a restricted trophoblast pro-inflammatory(More)