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Macrophage can adopt several phenotypes, process call polarization, which is crucial for shaping inflammatory responses to injury. It is not known if microglia, a resident brain macrophage population, polarizes in a similar way, and whether specific microglial phenotypes modulate cell death in response to brain injury. In this study, we show that both(More)
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a major contributor to the burden of stroke on society. Treatment options are limited and animal models of SAH do not always mimic key pathophysiological hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering development of new therapeutics. Inflammation is strongly associated with brain injury after SAH in animals and patients, and(More)
New therapeutic strategies are needed to protect neonates, especially premature newborns, against brain injury and associated neurobehavioral deficits. The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, in the pathophysiological pathway leading to neonatal brain damage is increasingly recognized and represents an attractive therapeutic target. We(More)
Research in affective computing and educational technology has shown the potential of affective interventions to increase student's self-concept and motivation while learning. Our project aims to investigate whether the use of affective interventions in a meta-cognitive tutor can help students achieve deeper modeling of dynamic systems by being persistent(More)
Inflammatory molecules are promptly upregulated in the fetal environment and postnatally in brain-damaged subjects. Intrauterine infections and inflammation are often associated with asphyxia. This double-hit effect by combined infection or inflammation and hypoxia is therefore a frequent concomitant in neonatal brain damage. Animal models combining hypoxia(More)
BACKGROUND Preterm and term newborns are at high risk of brain damage as well as subsequent cerebral palsy and learning disabilities. Indeed, hypoxia-ischemia (HI), pathogen exposures, and associated intracerebral increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines have all been linked to perinatal brain damage. However, the developmental effects of potential variations(More)
Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of(More)
PROBLEM Inflammation during pregnancy has devastating consequences for the placenta and fetus. These events are incompletely understood, thereby hampering screening and treatment. METHOD OF STUDY The inflammatory profile of villous tissue was studied in pregnancies at high-risk of placental dysfunction and compared to uncomplicated pregnancies. The(More)
Using a model of perinatal brain lesions induced by lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia/ischemia, we hypothesized that interleukin-2 (IL-2), a neurotoxic cytokine, was enhanced within injured brains. We showed that lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia/ischemia enhanced both intracerebral IL-2 mRNA and protein levels, with a maximum increase upon lipopolysaccharide and(More)