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Three subtypes of vesicular transporters accumulate glutamate into synaptic vesicles to promote its vesicular release. One of the subtypes, VGLUT3, is expressed in neurons, including cholinergic striatal interneurons, that are known to release other classical transmitters. Here we showed that disruption of the Slc17a8 gene (also known as Vglut3) caused an(More)
Calcineurin (PP2B) is a Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase enriched in the brain that takes part in intracellular signaling pathways regulating synaptic plasticity and neuronal functions. Calcineurin-dependent pathways are important for complex brain functions such as learning and memory. More recently, they have been suggested to play a role in the(More)
Syntaxin 1B and alphaCaMKII are two genes that are upregulated after the induction of LTP and appear to underlie different mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. alphaCaMKII is directly implicated in strengthening the synapses that have been modified, whereas syntaxin 1B has been implicated in a mechanism for the propagation of synaptic plasticity within neural(More)
We analysed the expression of PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor), the membrane anchor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), by in situ hybridization in the mouse brain. We compared the pattern of PRiMA transcripts with that of AChE transcripts, as well as those of choline acetyltransferase and M1 muscarinic receptors which are considered pre- and postsynaptic(More)
A cDNA library was generated in the expression vector lambda GT11 from rat brain poly(A)+ RNAs and screened with a GAD antiserum. Two clones reacted positively. One of them was shown to express a GAD activity which was specifically trapped on anti-GAD immunogel and was inhibited by gamma-acetylenic-GABA. Blot hybridization analysis of RNAs from rat brain(More)
Previous deafferentation studies have suggested that most hypothalamic GABAergic innervation originates from neurons within the hypothalamus. We have investigated the distribution of GABAergic cell groups in the rat hypothalamus by means of the in situ hybridization technique, using a cDNA probe for messenger RNA encoding glutamate decarboxylase. Several(More)
The two recently characterized vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT) presynaptically mark and differentiate two distinct excitatory neuronal populations and thus define a cortical and a subcortical glutamatergic system (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 positive, respectively). These two systems might be differentially implicated in brain neuropathology. Still, little(More)
Parkinson's disease is associated with a massive loss in melanized dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in a severe striatal dopaminergic denervation. The hyperactivity which develops in the remaining striatal dopaminergic terminals may be related to an increased rate of tyrosine hydroxylation. This could be related to changes in the level(More)
Following previous works showing an action of calcium channel blockers in mania, this trial explores the clinical efficiency of another anticalcic agent, nimodipine, which has been selected for its specific action on the CNS. Our design has been a 7-day controlled open trial. We included six inpatients diagnosed according to DSM III-R criteria as having(More)
The aim of this study was to define the influence of long-term hypoxia on gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Animals were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (10% O2 in nitrogen) for 2 weeks. At this time, the hypoxia-induced hyperventilation reached a plateau, indicating ventilatory acclimatization. In(More)