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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with obesity in most, but not all, ethnic groups, suggesting important ethnic differences in disease susceptibility. Although it is clear that insulin resistance plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM and that insulin resistance is strongly associated with increases in hepatic (HTG) and/or(More)
Increasing evidence supports a crucial role for glial metabolism in maintaining proper synaptic function and in the etiology of neurological disease. However, the study of glial metabolism in humans has been hampered by the lack of noninvasive methods. To specifically measure the contribution of astroglia to brain energy metabolism in humans, we used a(More)
Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. To investigate how insulin resistance arises, we studied healthy, lean, elderly and young participants matched for lean body mass and fat mass. Elderly study participants were markedly insulin-resistant as compared with young controls, and this resistance was(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance appears to be the best predictor of the development of diabetes in the children of patients with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism responsible is unknown. METHODS We performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies in combination with infusions of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose in healthy, young, lean, insulin-resistant offspring(More)
To examine the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFA) induce insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate, and intracellular glucose concentrations were measured using carbon-13 and phosphorous-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in seven healthy subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp following(More)
To examine the mechanism by which moderate weight reduction improves basal and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes, we used (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content in conjunction with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps using(More)
To further explore the nature of the mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance that occur in the muscle of young, lean, normoglycemic, insulin-resistant offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes (IR offspring), we measured mitochondrial content by electron microscopy and insulin signaling in muscle biopsy samples obtained from these individuals(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance is the best predictor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that young, lean, insulin-resistant (IR) offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes have reduced basal rates of muscle mitochondrial phosphorylation activity associated with increased intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content, which in turn(More)
Lipodystrophy is a rare disorder that is characterized by selective loss of subcutaneous and visceral fat and is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, hepatomegaly, and disordered glucose metabolism. It has recently been shown that chronic leptin treatment ameliorates these abnormalities. Here we show that chronic leptin treatment improves(More)
We examined the effect of three months of rosiglitazone treatment (4 mg b.i.d.) on whole-body insulin sensitivity and in vivo peripheral adipocyte insulin sensitivity as assessed by glycerol release in microdialysis from subcutaneous fat during a two-step (20 and 120 mU.m(-2).min(-1)) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in nine type 2 diabetic subjects. In(More)