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The neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G are multifunctional proteases involved in pathogen destruction and the modulation of inflammatory processes. A fraction of secreted NSPs remains bound to the external plasma membrane, where they remain enzymatically active. This protocol describes the spectrofluorometric(More)
The protease-antiprotease imbalance that is characteristic of most inflammatory lung disorders depends on the spatial-temporal regulation of active inhibitor and protease concentrations in lung secretions. We have studied the competition between the three main serine proteases from human neutrophil primary granules in their binding to alpha1-Pi, the main(More)
Uncontrolled proteolysis by neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) in lung secretions is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). We have shown that the active neutrophil elastase, protease 3, and cathepsin G in CF sputum resist inhibition in part by exogenous protease inhibitors. This resistance may be due to their binding to neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)(More)
The uncontrolled proteolytic activity in lung secretions during lung inflammatory diseases might be due to the resistance of membrane-bound proteases to inhibition. We have used a new fluorogenic neutrophil elastase substrate to measure the activity of free and membrane-bound human neutrophil elastase (HNE) in the presence of alpha1-protease inhibitor(More)
We have exploited differences in the structures of S2' subsites of proteinase 3 (Pr3) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) to prepare new fluorogenic substrates specific for each of these proteases. The positively charged residue at position 143 in Pr3 prevents it from accommodating an arginyl residue at S2' and improves the binding of P2'(More)
Activated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils at inflammatory sites release the chymotrypsin-like protease cathepsin G, together with elastase and proteinase 3 (myeloblastin), from their azurophil granules. The low activity of cathepsin G on synthetic substrates seriously impairs studies designed to clarify its role in tissue inflammation. We have solved(More)
EPI-hNE4 (depelstat) is a potent inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase derived from human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor and designed to control the excess proteolytic activity in the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients. We analyzed its resistance to the proteolysis it is likely to encounter at inflammatory sites in vivo. EPI-hNE4 resisted hydrolysis by(More)
The purpose of this study was to define nebulization conditions providing delivery of aerosols of EPI-hNE4, an inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (HNE). EPI-hNE4 was nebulized with Pari LC Star and tested at three concentrations (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL). The inhaled mass was measured over 15 min. Particle size distribution was measured by cascade(More)
Plants produce a variety of sesquiterpenoid compounds with diverse biological functions, whose synthesis is initiated by farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase [EC, EC]. The lack of availability of molecular tools to analyze this enzyme has, thus far, prevented the study of its expression and regulation in plants. A DNA fragment corresponding to a(More)